Iranian contributions to civilization of man!

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Iranian contributions to civilization of man!
by Iqbal Latif
12-Dec-2011
 

Iranian contributions to civilization of man

With us ther was a Doctour of Phisyk
In al this world ne was ther noon him lyk
To speke of phisik and surgerye, . . .
Wel knew he the olde Esculapius,
And Deiscorides, and eek Rufus,
Old Ypocras, Haly, and Galien,
Serapion, Razis, and Avicen

I have started with Geoffrey Chaucer who wrote in his prologue to the Canterbury Tales, and named the great physicians of the past that his 14th-century audience could be expected to recognize Esculapius, Deiscorides, Rufus, Old Ypocras, Haly, and Galien. Chaucer then goes on to name physicians from the medieval world of Middle East Ibn Sarabiyun or Serapion; `Razis' the great clinician of the early 10th century; `Avicen', or Avicenna referring to Ibn Sina whose early 11th-century medical encyclopedia was as important in Europe as it was in the Middle East.

And this is one reason why 'Great civilisations' should not be subject to ruthless obliteration or bombed they are rich part of our human heritage! You don't kill a man who has cancer you take the cancer out, the cancerous growth of dogma under mullahcracy is one problem but to address it by bombing Iran is absurd.Âbâd bâd Iran va shad bâd Irani!

Ibn Khaldun emphasized the crucial role of the Iranians in promoting learning, sciences, arts, architecture, and medicine in Islamic civilization. According to Dr. Kaveh Farrokh 'It was pan-Arabists such as Sami Shawkat who insisted that history books such as those by Ibn Khaldun be destroyed or re-written to remove all references of Iranian contributions to Islamic civilization. The former Baathist regime in Iraq promoted such policies and even worked alongside numerous lobbies to promote historical revisionism at the international level.' He writes in The Muqaddimah Translated by F. Rosenthal (III, pp. 311-15, 271-4 [Arabic]; R.N. Frye (p.91):

“… It is a remarkable fact that, with few exceptions, most Muslim scholars…in the intellectual sciences have been non-Arabs…thus the founders of grammar were Sibawaih and after him, al-Farisi and Az-Zajjaj. All of them were of Persian descent…they invented rules of (Arabic) grammar…great jurists were Persians… only the Persians engaged in the task of preserving knowledge and writing systematic scholarly works. Thus the truth of the statement of the prophet becomes apparent, ‘If learning were suspended in the highest parts of heaven the Persians would attain it” … The intellectual sciences were also the preserve of the Persians, left alone by the Arabs, who did not cultivate them…as was the case with all crafts…This situation continued in the cities as long as the Persians and Persian countries, Iraq, Khorasan and Transoxiana (modern Central Asia), retained their sedentary culture.”

Dr. Kaveh Farrokh says that ‘Iraq’ actually means. ‘Iraq’ is derived from Middle Persian or dialectical Pahlavi; it means ‘the lowlands’, like the Germanic term “Niederland” for modern day Holland. There is a region in Iran today which shares the same Pahlavi root as ‘Iraq’ – modern day Arak. The term ‘Baghdad’ is also of Iranian origin – “Boghu” (God) + “dad”(provided by, given by, bestowed by) – “Baghdad” is rough Iranian equivalent of the term “Godiva“. The remains of the capital of the Sassanian Empire, Ctesiphon, stand only 40 kilometers from modern Baghdad. If you have a look at the remains of the Archway of Khosrow located just forty kilometers from Baghdad in Iraq. The term “Baghdad” is old Persian for “Bestowed by God” or “Godiva”.

A hospital was called a bimaristan, often contracted to maristan, from the Persian word bimar, `ill person', and stan, `place.'The earliest documented hospital established by a ruler was built in the 9th century in Baghdad probably by the vizier to the caliph Harun al-Rashid. There is no evidence to associate the construction of the earliest hospital with any of the Christian physicians from Gondeshapur in southwest Iran, but the prominence of the Bakhtishu` family as court physicians would suggest that they also played an important role in the function of the first hospital in Baghdad.

Verses upon the death in Baghdad of the physician Yuhanna ibn Masawayh in 857 (243 H):

The physician, with his medical art and his drugs,
Cannot avert a summons that has come,
What ails the physician that he dies of the disease
That he would have cured in time gone by?
There died alike he who administered the drug and he who took it,
And he who imported and sold the drug, and he who bought it.

Latin translations of these practices provided late medieval Europe with ideas and practices from which early modern medicine eventually arose from Greek medical teaching and medical literature of the 9th to 12th century professionally practiced by `Razis' and Ibn Sina .

Iranian scholars of the Islamic era are: Zakaria Razi “Rhazes” (860- 923 or 932, born in Rayy, near Tehran), Abu Ali Sina “Avecenna” (980 -1037, born in Afshana, near Bukhara, ancient Samanid Capital), Abu Rayhan Biruni (973 – 1043, born in Khiva, Ancient Khwarazm now modern Afghanistan), Omar Khayyam (1044-1123, born in Nishabur, Khorasan), Mohammad Khwarazmi (d. 844, born in Khiva, Ancient Khwarazm, now in Modern Afghanistan). Not a single one of these scientists hailed from an Arab-speaking region, all were born in what is now Iran or the former realms of Persian speaking world. (source:wiki)

One of the greatest names in medieval medicine is that of Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya' al-Razi, who was born in the Iranian City of Rayy in 865 (251 H) and died in the same town about 925 (312 H).

`Adudi hospital was founded in 980 (370 H), more than 50 years after al-Razi died, it must be an earlier hospital, probably the one founded during the reign of al-Mu`tadid (ruled 892-902/279-289 H), which he helped locate and of which he was later director.

The most sought after of all his compositions was The Comprehensive Book on Medicine (Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb) -- a large private notebook or commonplace book into which he placed extracts from earlier authors regarding diseases and therapy and also recorded clinical cases of his own experience.

Following al-Razi's death, Ibn al-`Amid, a statesman and scholar appointed vizier to the Persian ruler Rukn al-Dawlah in 939 (327 H), happened to be in the town of Rayy and purchased from al-Razi's sister the notes comprising the Hawi, or Comprehensive Book. He then arranged for the pupils of al-Razi to put the notes in order and make them available.

`Ali ibn al-`Abbas al-Majusi (d. 994/384 H) was born into a Zoroastrian family from the Iranian city of Ahwaz about the time of al-Razi's death. Al-Majusi practiced medicine in Baghdad and served as physician to the ruler `Adud al-Dawlah, founder of the `Adudi hospital in Baghdad. It was to him that al-Majusi dedicated his only treatise, The Complete Book of the Medical Art (Kitab Kamil al-sina`ah al-tibbiyah), also called The Royal Book (al-Kitab al-Malaki). It is one of the most comprehensive and well-organized compendia in early medical literature. In Europe the treatise was known as Liber regius or Pantegni and the author as Haly Abbas.(source:wiki)

Al-Majusi began his influential Arabic encyclopedia with a critical survey of his sources, which included Hippocrates and Galen as well as al-Razi. While commending al-Razi's medical epitome dedicated to Mansur, al-Majusi criticized the Comprehensive Book on Medicine, the Hawi, for being too long (the modern printed version is incomplete at 23 volumes) and not well organized, since it had been intended as an aide-memoire and general medical record for al-Razi's own private use. Al-Majusi stated that the Hawi was so enormous that few could afford copies of it, and that in fact he knew of only two people who owned a copy, "both of whom were people of culture, learning, and wealth."

Of all physicians, the best known name is that of Abu `Ali al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah ibn Sina, known to Europe as Avicenna. He was born in 980 (370 H) in Central Asia and traveled widely in the eastern Islamic lands, composing nearly 270 different treatises. When he died in 1037 (428 H) he was known as one of the greatest philosophers in Islam, and in medicine was so highly regarded that he was compared to Galen.

Ibn Sina's magnum opus by which he was known East and West is the Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb or Canon of Medicine. It was composed over a lengthy period of time as he moved westward from Gurgan, in northern Iran, where it was begun, to Rayy and then to Hamadan even further southwest, where he completed it. The large comprehensive Arabic encyclopedia rivaled the popularity of al-Majusi's compendium and in many quarters surpassed it. (source:wiki)

To expound it further lets read Ali Jafarey who writes ''

''In its thousand years of supremacy, Pârsi has shaped one of the most excellent and premium creative writing from the ‘a’ of ‘anatomy’ to the ‘z’ of ‘zoology’ on animals, art, architecture, astrology, astronomy, drama, food, games, geography, government, history, humor, literature, magic, medicine, music, religion (Zoroastrian, Manichaeism, Mazdak Movement, Islam, Sufism, Christianity and Baha’ism), science, ‘translation and commentary’ (from Arabic,Greek, Pahlavi, Sanskrit, Turkish and other languages into Pârsi), and other fields of the human life. Phonetically, it sounds sweet to ears. Its articulated vowels make it much less guttural. Its poetry is, perhaps, the richest in language, expression, inspiration, narration, rhyme, tune, length, height and depth in the world languages.

Well-known Pârsi authors, numbering around 400 persons, are not only writers, generally prolific, but simultaneously a combination of two or more as architects, artisans, astronomers, chemists, court flatterers, ecologists, fictionists, geographers, historians, linguists, litterateurs, mathematicians, musicians, mystics, philosophers, physicians, poets, politicians, rulers, scientists, teachers, technologists, theologians and zoologists.Among those known better in the Western World are: Abhari (Asir al-Din Abhari), Alpharabus (Abu Nasr Farabi), Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina), Biruni (Abu Reihan Biruni), Ferdowsi (Abol Ghassem Ferdowsi Tusi), Geber (Jaber Ibn Hayyan), Hafez (Khajeh Shams al-Din Hafez-e Shirazi), Haravi (Abu Mansur Movaffaq Heravi), Kashi (Ghyas al-Din Jamshid Kashi), Kharazmi (Mohammad Kharazmi), Khayyam (Omar Khayyam Nishapuri), Rhazes (Zakariya Razi), Rumi (Mowlana Jal al-Din Mohammad Balkhi), and Sa’di ( Sheikh Sharaf al-Din Mosleh Shirazi). Its Shâhnâmeh, the Book of Kings, composed 1,000 years ago by Ferdowsi Tusi, is unique in the World Literature. Consisting of 60,000 couplets, it begins in the name of ‘God of Life and Wisdom’, Who is higher than human conception and Who created the Universe and maintains and guides it. It praises Wisdom as the best Gift of God to humanity. God created the earth along with fire, air and water, and then the plants and animals. Mankind appeared in an erect posture. The human history begins from the days of cave-dwelling, vegetarian food, scanty covering and stone implements, through the discovery of kindling fire, turning to the ‘devilish’ meat eating, animal domestication, architecture, dress making, metal implements, medicine, commerce and navigation, to the invasion of Iran by the Arab Muslims and the end of the Sassanian Empire. That is where the Shahnameh ends. As a nationalist, Ferdowsi did not want to continue the History of Iran under alien occupation. ''

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more from Iqbal Latif
 
JahanKhalili

amirkabear

by JahanKhalili on

No, I don't give up.

Plus, I've got Viking ancestry, too.

But I'm my own person, and no one decides for me anything. Not my ancestry, and not some imaginary set of rules made up for me to follow by people who don't even know me. 


amirkabear4u

Baldrick

by amirkabear4u on

why don't you just give up. May be you have not noticed it yet but in fact your stubborn attitude is so so Iranian.

Amazing isn't it JK, the things you learn everyday.

 

 


JahanKhalili

OK, Mr. Hooshang

by JahanKhalili on

I don't think you know anything about me or America.

But I'm going to go and read Howard Zinn's book - despite the fact that he was a political activist and not a disinterested historian. 


irnstd

I think

by irnstd on

I think you're pretty anti-american yourself, Jahan.

 

What kind of good, white American has a name like "Khalili"?!

 

HOW DO YOU EVEN PRONOUNCE THAT?!?!?!

 

GOOD WHITE AMERICANS WHOSE ANCESTORS WHO FOUGHT AT VALLEY FORGE AND BUILT THIS COUNTRY ALL BY THEMSELVES DO NOT HAVE EYE-RAINIAN NAMES!!!! 


JahanKhalili

Many of the Bolsheviks who opposed Stalin were guilty

by JahanKhalili on

Opposition to Stalin says nothing about a person's lack of culpability in serving the same cause he served.


JahanKhalili

He served a system and ideology that killed millions of people

by JahanKhalili on

I never said he was in Russia. But he was a Marxist. Right?

 


default

You moron Zinn lived in the US all his life, how could he have

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

been killing people in Russia? Are you forced to converse out of your bottom? So, Zinn was opposed to Stalin , yet he managed to kill Russians at the same time? Go to sleep man, you never make any sense. Total waste of time.


JahanKhalili

Didn't Marxists kill as many as or more than the Nazis?

by JahanKhalili on

Some of these killings were carried out by Marxists like Zinn who were opposed to Stalin.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_killings_under_Communist_regimes


default

Nazi killed 20,000,000 Russians. And we all know aboout the jews

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

Unless you're a Holocust denier. Are you?

Do you understand what the words: OPPOSING JOSEPH STALIN, means?

In your loving mind does that signify anything?

Am I talking to a tape recorder with pre-recorded messages? 


JahanKhalili

They killed millions of Russians, Ukrainians and Poles

by JahanKhalili on

Your Marxist friends like Genrikh Yagoda, for example.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genrikh_Yagoda


default

They did kill Nazi and Facists but appearantly a few

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

like yourself are still alive abd babbeling. You moron Zinn was opposed to Stalin, in you loving mind , if you have any, do you know what that means? Why do youhave to be so stupendous all the time?


JahanKhalili

Yes, his kind built the Gulags and helped kill millions

by JahanKhalili on

They also undermined and helped to destroy America. 

That is a great misfortune.

http://vodpod.com/watch/2753155-kevin-macdonald-discusses-jewish-influence-on-western-culture-1-of-6


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He has 2,000,000 Americans that bought his books and millions

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

more that enjoyed his other works. How many books have you sold.

And he also killed many Nazi soliders, the ones you admire and like.


JahanKhalili

Howard Zinn was an Anti-American Marxist Jew

by JahanKhalili on


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Doof bliebt doof, da helfen kiene Pillen.

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

Read Howard Zinn's critique of USSR and see how much of a Kantian you truly are. That book has sold more than two million copies. Name me one other history book in the world that has had as many readers.


JahanKhalili

A good quote from Eric Hoffer for you

by JahanKhalili on

 Rudeness is the weak man's imitation of strength


default

You're a malignant

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

Kant. And I'm not refering to the German philosopher.


JahanKhalili

Howard Zinn was a Soviet agent

by JahanKhalili on

Why quote him about American history, when his whole purpose was to undermine America?

I might as well produce anti-Iranian Baathist writings for you, in a serious discssion about Iranian history, to prove Iranians suck.


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A People's History of The US - Howard Zinn [1/53]

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on


JahanKhalili

I can speak for myself

by JahanKhalili on

Thank you very much. 

And white people built America by themselves.

Only the south depended on black slaves, and it was precisely due to that that they didn't develop an industry and were thus defeated in the Civil War 


irnstd

GUYS LEAVE JAHAN ALONE HIS

by irnstd on

GUYS LEAVE JAHAN ALONE HIS ANCESTORS WERE AT VALLEY FORGE LIKE ALL THE GOOD WHITE AMERICANS WHO BUILT A NATION ON THE BACKS OF AFRICAN SLAVES...er I mean...FOUGHT FOR DEMOCRACY!!!!


Iqbal Latif

Apology

by Iqbal Latif on

''I would rather die having spoken in my manner, than speak in your manner and live. 

The easiest and the noblest way is not to be crushing others, but to be improving yourselves.

The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways — I to die and you to live.''


Socrates Apology


JahanKhalili

Hahaha

by JahanKhalili on

Iranians are always at a loss when their myths are destroyed.


default

Actually exchanging with you is like a conversation with a

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

senileold man, but you even don't have the excuse of the age. You're juss out of it. A total waste of time, again!

When the Arab Muslim attacked Iran the entire population of the country was so pissed at phocking Sassanids and their corruption, they all welcomed the invaders. BTW, you look mighty Arabic yourself. Outta here.


JahanKhalili

Actually, it was Zoroastrians who were persecuting minorities

by JahanKhalili on

Have you ever heard of Kartir?

The Jews welcomed the Arab invasion of Iran, and even collaborated with Iran's Arab conquerors. 


Tiger Lily

.

by Tiger Lily on

.


default

Haha this, (below)

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

Safavid dynasty

Shiite Safavid dynasty destroyed what was once a vibrant community of
Zoroastrians, the original inhabitants of Iran
. As per the official
policy, Safavids wanted everyone to convert to their sect of Islam and
killed hundreds of thousands of Sunnis, Zoroastrians, Jews, and other
minorities when they refused to follow these orders.

Thousands of Jews left Iran for India, Syria and Turkey with only
about 10% remaining. Majority of Zoroastrians also left for India though
about 20% remained; most of which had to migrate in the late 19th
century as Qajar dynasty imposed greater restrictions on them


Tiger Lily

Iqbal Latif, and where in the world did Socrates say, even

by Tiger Lily on

in your own quoted analysis, that you should make judgments, pre-judgments upon others' characters?


Please, stop abusing Socrates!

As for Descartes, it's not difficult to grasp the Discourses. It's about the duality of Mind and Body, totally unrelated to your interpretations.

 

Basically, on the one hand, I respect your endeavours of intellectual pursuits, but on the other hand, you, very obviously, you are in need of guidance of reading phil texts. 

Btw I'm not JK. And isn't it ironic that you should bundle us up in your "scholastic issues". Ewwwaaaaw!

Furthermore, get another grip: people don't always suffer from delusions, in fact, they mostly enjoy them.


JahanKhalili

Three hundred years ago?

by JahanKhalili on

Haha!


default

...

by Hooshang Tarreh-Gol on

You fool, Wer're talking about turning Iran into a Shia state, which happened around three hundred years ago, and was the first wave of great migration for Iranians to leave their country due to religious intolerance. No one is forcing you to speedy nonsensical replies. If you don't know a topic or two, you might want to educate and inform yourself first, and then make a fool out of yourself.

TA SHAKHS SOKHAN NAGOFTEH BASHAD,

AIEB O HONARASH NAHOFTEH BASHAD!