Some Various Views on 28th Mordad

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All-Iranians
by All-Iranians
17-Aug-2012
 

 


The 1953 Iranian coup d'état (known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup) was the overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States under the name TPAJAX Project
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d'%C3%A9tat

While most Iranians believe that dismissal of the prime minister Mosadegh was a West & Shah “Coup Detat”" against the government of Dr Mohamad Mosadegh ,financed by million Dollars supplied by the Americans to general Zahedi , the CIA agent Kim Roosevelt say that the whole American money spent during the whole operation was about 10 thousand Dollars . In this clip , historians from the Islamic Republic also conclude that the operation on that day  can not be named as “Coup Détat “.
http://www.lenziran.com/2011/08/28-mordad-was-not-a-coup-detat-cia-agent-kim-rosevelt-and-the-son-of-ayatollah-kashani-talk/

A national leader namely Mossadeq in a session of Iran s congress on 26th of Mordad in 1330, in relation to getting a $25M loan from the US said, the government that we are asking a loan from, has no ill intentions to our country and for our land. As the other congressmen know, at the time, Phillipines was a colony of the US, but gradually gained its independence thanks to the US government. Mossadeq continued: The government of the United States has established its policy based on helpig all nations of the world and its policies respect the national independence of all nations.The US government has helped Turkey and Greece. It does not have an imperialistic and expansionist policy towards Iran.
Mossadeq's requests to the United States were provided by the US government until 1331 and for as long as the democrats were in power. After Eisenhower came to office, the US saw the most effective method for stoping communism in Iran. It was not in helping Mossadeq, but in overthrowing him.
Daryoosh Homayoon
http://www.irancmi.org/editof.htm

 28th of Mordad : Mosaddegh was my uncle and I have written his biography (Dr.Mohammad Mosaddegh: A political biography. London & New York, Croom Helm, 1986), but I think that your younger readers would be more interested in my memories as a teenager in Tehran, during August 1953.

The town had been buzzing for the past few days and all the action was on the streets. Tehran was far smaller then, and it was quite easy to get about from the Baharistan Square (in front of the Majless) to the Bazaar, or up to the university campus, the three main points of action. I would escape from home and roam around the streets, taking photos of street scenes on Eslambol Avenue, looking towards Baharistan Square, Naderi Avenue next to the British Embassy, and others. There are two photos of truck tire tracks in blood, because someone had been killed there just before.

At the time, I was in the Park Hotel (on Hafez) and, before they slammed shut the heavy main gates, I slipped out and followed this quite scary mob. Later, I was found by one of the people sent out to search for me and taken to our garden in Shemiran, where my parents were frantically expecting me. The next day, two army lorries drove to our gate and had to be let in. The soldiers swarmed all over our house and garden, as they claimed that Mosaddegh was in hiding at his brother's house.

My father ran a summer extension of the Park Hotel, called Park-e-Now (New Park), on the old Shemiran Road (now Shariati), opposite the gas station. That place was totally sacked by the soldiers, and left in ruins, since it belonged to Mosaddegh's brother. Next, we were kept under house arrest, until my father could secure the release of my sister and myself, to return to school in England.

Farhad Diba August 19, 1998

http://iranian.com/History/Aug98/28Mordad/index.html

The day Mosaddegh fell : I wrote this piece back in 1978. It is a graphic eye-witness account of that day when the instinctive and immature hopes of a nation were so cheaply dashed -- a nation that had risen against the might of the imperialists of various colors under the sincerity of one man who was encircled and infiltrated by so many insincere, pompous, sometimes passionate, most of the time perilously ignorant, voluble, greedy and ambitious men.

In the summer of 1953 I moved from Abadan to Tehran and filmed various events and men -- in the streets and in the privacy of the committee rooms as well as by the bedside of the dear great man working in his bedroom.

Ebrahim Golestan

August 21, 1998

http://iranian.com/History/Aug98/Golestan/index.html

Musaddiq’s conception of constitutionalism based on his arguments before the court that tried him in 1953: Mohammad Musaddiq’s views on constitutionalism in Iran are worthy of consideration for several reasons: he was the leader of the secular liberal movement National Front, he was a participant-observer from the very first parliament, the Majles, and he was, arguably, Iran's foremost constitutional lawyer. As Iranian constitutionalism was a young and evolving experiment, Musaddiq’s conception of it could have been expected to change over time. This proved especially true when he assumed the responsibilities of governance as Prime minister during the critical years of the nationalization of Iran's oil. The challenge of dealing with the competing centers of power would shape Musaddiq’s notion of what was practical under the existing constitutional monarchy in Iran. He had a unique opportunity to articulate his thoughts on this subject when forced to prepare for his trial a month after his overthrow in August 1953. In Musaddiq’s arguments before the court, as this paper will attempt to show, he addressed the core issues of Iran's constitutionalism comprising the roles of the monarch, the executive branch, representative assemblies, and direct channels for the exercise of popular sovereignty. What emerged as his prescription was a constitutional monarchy where the Shah would be a symbolic and ceremonial figure, the powerful Prime Minister and his cabinet would be accountable to the Majles, the Majles would be the ultimate locus of power, and the electorate would be well informed through the free exchange of diverse opinions and actively vigilant to keep the legislators responsive.

Keyvan Tabari

September 14, 2006

http://iranian.com/Tabari/2006/September/Constitutionalism/index.html

What is your view  on the developments near 60years ago that led to the American-British coup in Iran on August 19, 1953?  How would you analyze the US interference in Iranian affairs?

Dr. Kayhan Barzegar, Director of the Institute for Middle East Strategic Studies: There is a challenge in the US foreign policy concerning balancing its values and interests. When it comes to the Middle East and Iran, the United States has always taken the side of its interests and not values. I think the story goes back to the time after World War II when the US became an interventionist power. Before that America was perceived an honest broker in Iran's history and at the sight of politicians such as Ahmad Qavam and Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh a value-oriented country. For example, Dr. Mosaddegh hoped that the US government could help him settle the crisis with Britain over the issue of Oil Nationalization. But after World War II, the US reached a position that its main interest was how to settle and establish its sphere of influence in the Middle East. Therefore we see from that point on the US took this position and attempted to balance its power in the Middle East....So the main duty of the United States becomes preserving the Western Anglo-Saxon liberalist values and stability in the region. And unfortunately this goes to our own history and to the 1953 coup that sadly changed Iran's nationalistic government and I would say that changed the main political-social trends in the entire Middle East during the following years and that led, in one part to the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran. One can even argue that one of the reasons behind the advent of the Arab revolutions today  is because of  the US interventionist presence in the region’s affairs (11/08/2012)

http://www.uscloseup.com/content/reasons-behind-1953-us-coup-d%C3%A9tat-known-28-mordad-coup

Who Betrayed the Constitution in 1953?

www.firstpost.com/topic/place/iran-khosro-fravahar-mosadegh-vs-the-constitution-video-IMfdIsWs5Oc-32-1.html

 What is your view? Any comment?

xxxxxxxxxxx 

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قصٌه های تکراری

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باز هم ماه امرداد سر رسید و بازار قصٌه های بی پایه قدیمی و تکراری در باره "کودتای آمریکائی انگلیسی" ٢٨ امرداد دوباره رواج پیدا کرد

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خیلی هم خوب شد! چی‌چی بد شد

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به ‌روایت احسان نراقی ، دکتر صدیقی تعریف می‌کرد: « وقتی خانه‌ی دکتر مصدق را غارت کردند، وی (دکتر صدیقی) به اتفاق دکتر مصدق و دکتر شایگان می‌روند از دیوار بالا، روی پُشت بام همسایه در گوشه‌ای می‌ نشینند. دکتر شایگان می‌گوید: بد شد! ، مصدق یک مرتبه از جا می‌پرَد و می‌گوید: چی بد شد!؟ بایستیم این ارازل و اوباش ما را در مجلس ساقط کنند؟ در حالی که حالا دو ابَرقدرت ما را ساقط کردند، خیلی هم خوب شد! چی‌چی بد شد؟!»
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All-Iranians

Elaborate more on the term of coup

by All-Iranians on

If we read and elaborate more on the term “coup d’état", we see that 28th of Mordad does not fit into that category and technical definition.
http://iranian.com/main/2012/aug/day-history#comment-511890


All-Iranians

واقعه ۲۸ مرداد: کودتا ؟ رستاخیز ؟ هیچکدام

All-Iranians


باید پذیرفت که دو اشتباه مهلک دکتر مصدق، اولی در نپذیرفتن پیشنهاد مشترک انگلیس و امریکا و دومی عدم درخواست انحلال مجلس از شاه و رجوع به رفراندوم، بهانه کافی به همه مخالفان داخلی و خارجی وی داد که در سرنگونی اش یکپارچه شوند. در حالی که پیش از این دو اشتباه، امکان ساقط کردن دولت این محبوبترین نخست وزیر مشروطه به مخیله هیچکدامشان خطور نمی کرد
http://www.rangin-kaman.org/v1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8784:2012-08-22-02-33-23&catid=34:politique


All-Iranians

خاطرات دکتر سید علی شایگان از روز ۲۸ مرداد

All-Iranians



All-Iranians

Jenab-e P_J

by All-Iranians on

Thank you for your visit and for your input. You may also like to view this

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P_J

All-Iranians! Great Blog!

by P_J on

Agree with Rozbeh_Gillani.   Ali P., your link was very interesting!

There were combination of factors that brought about the success of the CIA Coup of 1953.

Number ONE was that Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was a weak, coward and a congenital traitor.

Number two was the presence of people like Kashani, with no solid principles or commitments angry at Mossadegh who did, and stood by them and would not make any compromises that could have jeopardized the country.   He was an honest and stubborn man that would not deviate an IOTA from the principles of honesty, integrity and patriotism.

Number three was the existence of the Tudeh Party.   AJAX conspirators used them as their BOOGY man scaring public.   None of this would have happened had there not have been chaos in the Kremlin due to the sudden death of Stalin!

These conclusions were drawn reading several articles authored by Kermit Roosevelt of the AJAX operation.   And I believe that was the reason that Khomeini did not take any chances with the military leaders and executed them all.

Conclusion; Separation of State and Church is the principle corner stone of a democratic and CIVIL society.


All-Iranians

Jenab-e Zendanian

by All-Iranians on

Thank you for your re-visit and for your interesting note. You may also like to view this:

http://www.loghatnaameh.org/dehkhodaworddetail-0981a69ac3674159a36dcdaae22e43c8-fa.html


All-Iranians

Jenab-e Roozbeh_Gilani

by All-Iranians on

Thank you for your visit and for the link. You may also like to view this

http://iranian.com/main/blog/all-iranians-92


Zendanian

Major shortcomings in '53 Coup was from Mosadegh (RIP) & Tudeh

by Zendanian on

Dear AI, thank you for that link. Unfortunately Mr. Behroz's "scholarship" is in need of major corrections. The factions he refers to in that piece are not that accurate, and some of the individuals he names; Dr. Jodat and others actually were acting pretty much opposed to what Mr. Behroz describes in here. In the interview  on Tudeh's Officers' Organization, the interviewee mentions how  "Tehran Province Committee" (Komiteh Ayaltei Tehran) was opposed to the leadership policies. I would take that interview as a much more vaild source, since the person was/is actually a participant in those events and years, and knows whta he's talking about.

Dear RG, as that long interview with this x-member of Officers' Oraganization makes very clear, both Mosadegh (RIP) and Tudeh had ample warnings about the unfolding catastrophe, and basically did nothing, or very very little about it.

So in the over all schemem of things(after some six decades), who are to hold responsible for the failure? Brits, the U.S., the reactionary Shia Clergy, or Mosadegh himself, and Tudeh (as the only major opposition groups on a national scale).

In other words, why should anyone expect Brits, US or the clregy to behave in any other way. It's in their nature to do what they have been doing all along.

It was the task, responsibility and job of Mosadegh and Tudeh to stand up to that Coup in full force, unfortuantely both of them failed to do so. And we've paid the price ever since.

 


Roozbeh_Gilani

نقش عمده روحانیون در کودتای بیست و هشت مرداد

Roozbeh_Gilani


اما مسئله این حکایتِ آشنا چیست؟ مساله‌اش این است که در عالم واقعیت نقش سازمان سیا در سقوط محمد مصدق ناچیز بود. واقعیت این است که بزرگ‌ترین نقش در سقوط مصدق را جامعه روحانیت ایران ایفا کرد، و نبایستی به جمهوری اسلامی این اجازه داده شود تا گناه روحانیون را به راحتی پنهان کند.
http://www.khodnevis.org/index.php?news=14287


Zendanian

سازمان افسری حزب توده ایران و کودتای ۲۸ مرداد

Zendanian


اخبار روز: گفتگوی زیر با محمدعلی عمویی از افسران سازمان نظامی حزب توده ی ایران در زمان کودتای ۲٨ مرداد ۱٣٣۲ همراه با مقدمه ی زیر جهت انتشار در اخبار روز، در اختیار ما قرار گرفته است:

«در زمانه ای که میراث‌خواران کودتای ۲٨ مرداد چون ارواحی احضار شده از زباله دان تاریخ به صحنه بازگشته اند و مشغول تطهیر نظام کودتایی شاهنشاهی هستند، مصاحبه هایی از این دست که به تاریخ کودتا و شرح دقیق آن می پردازد، ضروروت زمانه است. زمانه‌ای که نیروهای مترقی در انزوایند و شیفتگان دیکتاتوری و امنیت، فردایی روشن را در پناه جت های آمریکایی تصویر می‌کنند...خطر نزدیک است و کاویدن تاریخ شاید چراغی برای آینده برافروزد.»
http://www.akhbar-rooz.com/article.jsp?essayId=47339


All-Iranians

Jenab-e Anglophile

by All-Iranians on

Thank you for your re-visit and for your interesting note. You may also like to view this:

"No man is above the law and no man is below it: nor do we ask any man's permission when we ask him to obey it": Theodore Roosevelt
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anglophile

A note on Keyvan Tabari's white-wash document

by anglophile on

One, as Tabari is, may be a card-carrying Mossadeghist as is his right to be. But once one, as Tabari does, styles himself as an international lawyer of some standing!!, and produces such a heavily sanitised, better to say white washed account of his subject's so called biography and attempts so feebly to produce a defence for him, he gives a bad name to law and lawyers.

 

I just suffice it to say that regardless of producing flawed and openly false accounts in support of his subject's contitutionalism (Mossadegh was rejected in his first attempt to enter the Majlis beacuse he had fardualently raised his age by producing falsified doucmentation - one of many instances of white-wash by Tabari) Tabari uses his skills (!!) as a lawyer to suggest that Mossadegh who (in Tabari's view) was a constitutional lawyers (another faleshood) had the right to 'interpret' the law as he deemed fit! Tabari seems to have missed this part of his lawyer's training that such right (even if it existed, which, didn't) must be extended to the Prime minister by the Constitution and not at the Prime Minister's whim! Otherwise, as Tabaris argues that the constitution was still in its evolutionary phase, what should stop the Monarch to interpret the law as he deems fit and does what the Monarch did after 28 Mordad? Neither the Monarch nor his Prime Minister are endowed with such power as self interpretation by the constitution. And although Tabari hates to hear this: NONE OF THEM ARE ABOVE THE LAW.

Sorry Mr Tabari please stick to practising the international law - constitutionial law is not for you. 


All-Iranians

Jenab-e Ali P

by All-Iranians on

Thank you for your visit and for your very interesting link. You may also like to view this

امروز با حافظ ـ شنبه ۲۸ مرداد ۹۱

http://www.aftabir.com/lifestyle/view/172612/%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B2-%D8%A8%D8%A7-%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8-%D8%B4%D9%86%D8%A8%D9%87-%DB%B2%DB%B8-%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AF-%DB%B9%DB%B1


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Jenab-e Shazde Asdola Mirza

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 روايت شعرى پيروزى «كودتای ۲۸ مرداد»

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Jenab-e Farhangi

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Thank you for your visit and for the link. You may also like to view this

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Shazde Asdola Mirza

Good compilation, thanks for being fair to Dr. Mosaddegh

by Shazde Asdola Mirza on


Ladan Farhangi

چرا در ۲۸ مرداد، مصدّق، میدان را خالی کرد

Ladan Farhangi



All-Iranians

Jenab-e Anglophile

by All-Iranians on

Thank you for your visit and for your hint to the title of the blog. On second thought, we decided that it would be much better to edit the title. So it might be replaced as "Some Various Views on 28th Mordad" right after the blog is defeatured. 


anglophile

Jenab-e All Iranians

by anglophile on

Thank you for compiling such a varied collection of views and intepretations as expressed by different and often opposing researchers, participants, activists and those with family connections to the 28 Mordad episode. The only suggestion that I would like to make, if I may, is that the in the title of your blog the word Fact needs to be placed in between a pair of single quotation marks as in 'Facts' or replaced by the word Views. The assertions made by the participants in this blog can hardly be regarded as facts as they are fundamentally disputed by the opposing side. 

My humble opinion.

With regards

 

Anglophile