The Three Paradoxes of the Islamic Revolution
The Middle East Institute via payvand / Abbas Milani

In Iran, despite the requisite popular agency of a revolution, events in 1979 paradoxically gave rise to a regime wherein popular sovereignty was denigrated by the regime's founding father, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, as a colonial construct, created to undermine the Islamic concept of umma (or spiritual community).

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