Diplomatic History: Shah and Saddam sign 1975 Algiers Agreement


Diplomatic History: Shah and Saddam sign 1975 Algiers Agreement
by Darius Kadivar

In March 1975, subsequent to discussions at an OPEC meeting, Iran and Iraq agreed to meet and negotiate their dispute over borders and water and navigation rights. This meeting resulted in the Algiers accord below, and in a subsequent treaty signed June 13, 1975. During the convocation of the OPEC Summit Conference in the Algerian capital and upon the initiative of President Houari Boumedienne, the Shah of Iran and Saddam Hussein (Vice-Chairman of the Revolution Command Council) met twice and conducted lengthy talks on the relations between Iraq and Iran. The thalweg, meaning the median course of the Shatt-El-Arab waterway, was designated as the border. The agreement caused the Shah of Iran to withdraw Iranian support for the Kurdish rebellion, which thereupon collapsed.

Less than six years after signing the treaty, Iraq attacked Iran to invade the border lands. The main points of the dispute concerned the Shatt El Arab, a waterway that is Iraq's only outlet to the sea, as well disputed islands and territories. In part, the dispute arose because of the shifting course of the Shatt El Arab. Even after the war, the disputes have not been totally resolved. More Here


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Saddam Hussein aide executed in Iraq

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Saddam Hussein aide executed in Iraq (cnn)


raq has executed a high-ranking aide to the late ruler Saddam Hussein, a government spokesman said Thursday.

The Justice Ministry carried out the execution of Abid Hamid Mahmud al-Tikriti, who was Hussein's personal secretary, national security adviser and senior bodyguard, spokesman Ali a-Dabbagh said.


  • Abid Hamid Mahmud al-Tikriti was Saddam Hussein's national security adviser
  • Al-Tikriti was the regime's most wanted official next to Hussein and his sons
  • He had been sentenced to death for genocide and crimes against humanity


Darius Kadivar

Algerian elections an 'important first stage of reform'

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Algerian elections an 'important first stage of reform' (France 24)


The European Union observer mission Saturday declared Algeria’s elections an important step toward reform in the country, but stopped short of calling the poll - which was dominated by the ruling FLN party - as free or fair.

Arash Monzavi-Kia

Dear Darius, well said

by Arash Monzavi-Kia on

Shah of course did not abandon the Kurds, as many who chose were granted political asylum in Iran, e.g. the Barezani clan. However, he certainly underestimated the ferocity of Saddam's regime in suppressing the Kurdish population.

The Iran-Iraq peace treaty of 1975 was part of an overall initiative to de-radicalize the Arab regimes. The same thrust resulted in the Eypte-Israel peace accord. However, the collapse of Imperial Iran unraveled much of those gains.

IRI has never been into diplomacy, period. They are much like the North Koreans who can only understand one logic: Brute Force. The American hostages were only released after a complete international isolation; Khomeini only accepted the UN cease fire after Iraqi's near complete victory; Khamenei only stopped the nuclear weapon drive after serious international sanctions. But why?

As you have correctly mentioned, their totalitarian mentality is the main obstacle. They want it ALL. That is partly rooted in the Fundamentalist Islamist view that sees all the other ideas and regimes as evil; and partly in their hardcore revolutionary psyche, which was forged during the 1978-1988 period of relentless fighting and bloodshed.

Arash M-K


This picture...

by Sepideh JD (not verified) on

This picture tells a thousand tales within.

The Shah, Boumedienne, Saddam Hussein -- how
could their destinies have been different?
Had they taken a different step here or made
a different decision there, life would have
been so different both for themselves and for
their people.
Where is that crystal ball that you need to
look into and see what the future holds?

Of course both the Shah and Boumedienne died of disease, but so much could have been different...

May the ones who meant well RIP.

Khoda Shah ra biamorzad.

Darius Kadivar

Arash Thanks but the Iraqi Kurds paid a high price ...

by Darius Kadivar on

It was the only reasonable way to keep our frontiers safe under an international Treaty recognized by both parties and at the same time under the mediation of an Arab State like Algiers as an impartial muslim state. The Shah was right to accept the accords (which favored Iran's interests and respected Iran's territorial integrity) But the Iraqi Kurds paid a very high price and as a result many were executed by Saddam Hussein's regime because Iran had to give up supporting the Kurds against the Iraqi dictatorship.

Alas Successful Diplomacy often means concessions ...

Also like you correctly said most probably if the Revolution had not taken place in Iran, Saddam would have not dared attack Iran or would have waited for a more preferable timing. But given that our Army was weakened by the execution of our Top Brass Generals, Saddam wrongly thought that the Iranians would not be able to defend themselves and he would conquer Iran just like the Americans thought that invading Iraq would be a piece of cake. Alas in our case the War lasted for 8 years with the tragic consenquences we know for both countries with a Million deaths on eachside.

On the otherhand in retrospect one wonders why the IRI who claims to have the interests of the Palestinians on mind does not try to adopt the same attitude as Algiers government as a peace seeking foreign power. Instead it encourages rebellion in Gaza against Israel and cripples its former Ally the PLO in negotiating a two State Solution with Israel that would meet the expectations of both parties.

That is the difference between "Diplomacy" as a "pro active dynamic for Peace" and a War Mongering behavior that Iran has alas been adopting since 1979 and particularly right now regarding Israel and their staunch support for HAMAS Rebellion.

The IRI wants to have ALL OR NOTHING ...


Arash Monzavi-Kia

Darius: great footage

by Arash Monzavi-Kia on

Great footage to signify one of the most important foreign policy successes of the Shah. Saddam couldn't wait to tear up that agreement, when Khomeini came to power and undermined the Iranian army and diplomacy.