Remembering Mosaddeq

Iraj Afshar, Jalil Bozorgmehr and Mohammad Mosaddeq


Remembering Mosaddeq
by Fariba Amini

“This building was constructed in 1334 thanks to the generosity of Mohammad Hasan Shamshiri.* All the money received from regular patients who come here for treatment will be used to treat those who are poor and cannot pay for such services. From these revenues, nothing will be taken to compensate the owners and the administrators.” -- Mohammad Mosaddeq, inscribed on a plaque at Najmieh Hospital in Tehran

On the anniversary of the August 19, 1953, coup, which is forever etched in our memory, what better way than to remember Iran’s democratic leader by reading an account filled with anecdotes of his personal and political life as told to his lawyer, Jalil Bozorgmerh in a book called Taqrirat-e Mosaddeq dar Zendan* (Mosaddeq’s Prison Notes) compiled by J. Bozorgmehr and edited by the late great Iranologist, Dr. Iraj Afshar.

I have taken the liberty of selecting and translating passages from the book. In as much as possible I have tried to stay true to the original text. Published two years after the Revolution, it is the personal account of the key moments in the life of a unique man and a distinguished politician, including the events that led to his downfall.

Introduction by Iraj Afshar

“There is no doubt that the late Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq left a lasting mark on Iran’s history and his government opened an important chapter in the political development of Iran. Thus, to judge him correctly and without bias, the many aspects of his life must be understood, and for this we need ample genuine documents.

Among these documents, which I have the honor and privilege to present to the readers, is a series of assorted notes gathered by Colonel Jalil Bozorgmehr, his honest lawyer during the military court proceedings. He undertook this task with immense courage while visiting the late Mosaddeq in prison. Dr. Mosaddeq reread the notes but in order not to make changes in the text made only a few marginal corrections so as not to cause a problem for Bozorgmehr.

Mr. Bozogmehr kept these notes from the hands of the political police in different places for 26 years and presented them to me for publication. I am indebted to him for his friendship and kindness honoring me with this task, allowing me to do the right thing towards one of the most exceptional political figures of Iran.

Colonel Bozorgmehr’s notes did not follow the sequence of events. Every day, he would write what he heard from the Dr. and would jot it down later from memory. I only tried to put them in correct chronological order. I hope it will be acceptable to those who read the book. May Mosaddeq’s soul be content.” – Los Angeles, 11 Farvardin 1359, Iraj Afshar.

Mosaddeq’s appreciative letter to Bozorgmehr

“I want to convey from far away my greetings to my friend Mr. Jalil Bozorgmehr and to thank him for his courageous effort in representing me during the military trial; I looked forward to seeing him during the time I was in prison. After the trial, I was saddened not to be able to see him. It was indeed an unpleasant period which I endured, and now that 12 years have passed since my imprisonment, I cannot leave Ahmad Abad and am not allowed to see anyone except for my children.

Since I will not live to see him [Bozorgmehr] again, I want to convey my sincere appreciation and bestow all my blessings to him in helping a compatriot. I ask the almighty God to protect him and his family.” -- Mohammad Mosaddeq

Bozorgmehr’s note

“Dr. Mosaddeq did not want to talk much about himself but I wanted to engage him so I would ask him questions. He would always say whatever the people need to know about me, they already know and they will know.” -- Jalil Bozogmehr

Passages from the book:

Studies abroad

In 1909 I started on a journey via Rasht and Enzeli to study in Paris. I took my brother Mr. Abolhassan Diba (Seqqet el-Dowleh) to study in a boarding school.

I had studied so much during 1909-1910 that I got very sick. I remember I went to see Professor Haim, a renowned French physiologist; when he saw the test results of my stomach acidity, he was astonished to see how high they were. He told me that I was the first patient whose stomach was so messed up. He told me that I had to take a 3-month rest. I told him that, unfortunately, I could not as it was my last year of studies. But he insisted that if I did not listen, nature would force me into doing so. I continued going to school but sometimes it was unbearable for me to sit for a long time and listen to the professor’s lectures.

Village life

I remember staying in convalescences in the village of Afjeh. During my time there, an old friend Mirza Abdollah Khan Mirpanj was with me. He was a very honest man. One day, he asked me so what other thing did you learn during your time in Paris besides your studies? I said, like what? He said, like cooking. I told him I learned how to cook a little bit. I know how to make crème renversée, or what they call pudding. I decided to make it for my friend. After two days of boiling milk and eggs and trying to cook it under the fire I had made, I failed. It was during lunch the next day and after nothing changed in the texture of the milk that Mirpanj told me, if your studies are anything like your cooking, God have mercy on this country and the people [!]


I had been invited to attend a meeting of a society in Tehran. By chance, Mr. Ali Akbar Dehkhoda was there as well. We worked together for a while and we liked each other and trusted one another. The meetings were held in the Seraj Mosque. One day, during am outing, he said I have told the people that you would be coming to the meeting, which will be held in a house across form the mosque. I said, ok we can go together. I found out that the owner of the house was the late Mirza Alimohammad Dowlat Abadi who was one of the leaders of the E`tedal Party. After a few discussions, I found out that they had invited me to become a member. Since I did not want to upset Mr. Dehkhoda, I did not say anything and did not decline. While I was in Europe I did not know much about what was happening in Iran when it came to politics. I was just tending to my studies. I did not know the different parties, and it was only because I trusted Mr. Dehkhoda that I had accepted the invitation. They brought the Koran so that I would swear on it. But I declined. My friendship with Mr. Dehkhoda resulted in my becoming a member of the E`tedal Party; I worked with Mr. Dehkhoda for a while; since he would occasionally be late for meetings, (extended laughter) we would go to his house so that he could be on time.


I spent a few days in Bombay [Mumbai]. Some Iranian residents of India came to visit me. Among them, Prince Soleyman Mirza and `Isa Mirza, who had both been imprisoned by the British government, came to see me. Vossuq el-Dowleh was also in the hotel Taj Mahal where I was staying. We did not meet or cross paths, for obvious reasons.


In Qavam el-Saltaneh’s cabinet, I was the minister of finance. I wanted to make reforms in the Ministry of Finance and fired a few people. When Journalists wanted to write negatively about me, they would first write in favor of Sardar-e Sepah who would then say they didn’t say anything negative.

Another time, Qavam called me in and told me that because the country was in financial distress, they wanted to sell bonds. Since people trusted me, I, along with [Sydney]Armitage Smith who was a British financial advisor, should sign my name for this reason. I got up and said I would never do such thing. As long as Armitage Smith was in charge of our finances, I would not agree. Then, they tried to bring an advisor from the United States. I said this will not work either. First you must prove that Iranians cannot take care of the financial affairs of their own country. This is like they used to say that an Iranian cannot run the oil production and he can only make water pitchers.

The Soviets

The abolition of the law of capitulation in Azerbaijan that I had ordered while I was minister of foreign affairs resulted in a continued discussion with the Soviet Ambassador in Tehran in 1302. He wrote a letter to me in which he reminded me that there was no such law between Iran and the Soviet Union. You must tell us under which jurisdiction should Soviet citizens be tried in Iran, he asked. It was obvious that all this pressure was because of what I had done in Azerbaijan.

Treaty of 1919 and Vossuq

God only knows that I was the first person who was against the treaty [of 1919, which gave partial rights to the English to govern Iran, making Great Britain the sole foreign power that mattered in Iran]. When Vossuq el-Dowleh became head of the ministers he was given a lot of money to spend. He then would buy off people and give them salaries. We worked with Samsam el-Dowleh against Vossuq. One day, Vossuq came to me and said tell me what you are up to? I said that I had no plans; that I was going to Europe. I started writing against the treaty when I was in Switzerland. I was in Neuchâtel, which was a remote place. I had a room on the 3rd story of a building. I could not make a stamp there thus I had to go to Bern and make a rubber stamp in the name of the committee I had formed : Comité Resistance des Nations. At that time, the League of Nations was meeting in Versailles. I wrote my objections and protest letters and would send them to Nayereh Soltan, and he would then send it the League of Nations and to the press. The English were watching.

Ahmad Shah

They took Ahmad Shah to England where they had a big party for him. Nosrat el-Dowleh wrote a declaration, praising the treaty Vossuq el-Dowleh had signed and they wanted Ahmad Shah to read it. One of the worst things Ahmad Shah ever did was to appoint Vossuq el- Dowleh as the head of ministers without a vote in the Majlis. And he [Vossuq] in turn, signed the treaty. Ahmad Shah became quite upset after this event. While in London, the British wanted him to admit that he was okay with this action but he did not agree. This guy, Naser el-Molk, insisted that Ahmad Shah accept the terms, but he did not accept to read the statement during dinner. It was because of this that the late Ahmad Shah was dismissed.


Qavam came to me and said you have done good work while you were in Shiraz, but we also noticed that you have spent your own money; you should be compensated. So he gave me a check for 10,000 tumans as a token. I told him that it was not necessary, no thank you. If I have done anything, it was for my country. I am not needy. I have a livelihood in Tehran. If I have had financial loss it is my own doing. It is not necessary to pay me. If I had taken that money I am sure I would have been put in jail.


They [the British] had spent quite a bit of money on the police in the South. The British consul in Shiraz told me that they gave one hundred Lacks to Farmanfarma. Each Lack was one hundred thousand Rupees, so a total sum of five to six hundred thousand rupees. When I returned to Tehran I asked Farmanfarma. He said it wasn’t just him, but Qavam Shirazi also received money. When Forughi was in office, the British sent a letter to him and he accepted their terms but they immediately charged Iran by deducting it from the oil revenues. Forughi was not the type to take money but he wanted to stay in power and get his monthly salary. Whatever they wanted, he would do. Vossuq el-Dowleh would not give any concessions until he received money; sometimes if he didn’t get his share, he would not give concessions [to the British].

The Persian Gulf islands

We wanted to send troops to the islands of Sheykh Sho`eyb and Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf but the English were against it. They said these two islands belong to the Emirate of Sharjah. They had control over Sharjah and wanted to add the two islands to the Sheikhdom. Because of this [at that time Dr. Mosaddeq was minister of foreign affairs] I had some heated exchanges with Sir Percy Loraine (who was by the way a polite man). He told me, do you know who you are dealing with? I said, yes, what can you do to me? The only thing you can do is kill me. That’s all. By the way, what happened to the fate of the islands? [Asking Bozorgmehr]

An interesting story

One of the most interesting stories I remember is about Eyrum who was the head of police. One day, the Shah told him, I have heard that lots of people go to Naser el-Din Shah’s tomb to say their prayers. Do something about it. That evening, Eyrum was a guest at Haj Hasan Aqa Malek’s (in Emamzadeh Qasem). This property has its own story; it belonged to his [Haj Hasan’s] father who was a real crook. He had gotten the property in a bet with my uncle Farmanfarma. When Haj Hasan saw that Irum was in deep thought, he asked, what is the matter? Colonel Eyrum told him what the Shah had said. Haj Hasan then said, give me some money and I will find the solution. Haj Hasan’s solution was if they buried Reza Shah next to Naser el-Din Shah, nobody will pay anymore visits to the tomb.

Foreign diplomats

In my first encounters with foreign diplomats first I would meet them with ultimate cordiality and in proper attire and would accompany them all the way to the doorstep. But then after the initial meetings, I greeted them in bed in my private room. For a couple of years, I only had one suit to wear. At The Hague and at the Security Council, I would wear the same clothing, also at private functions. Ahmad [Dr. Mosaddeq’s son] had a formal suit, which he had brought from Europe, and I wore that when I went to see his Majesty (before I became Prime Minister) and during the opening of the Majlis. I had paid 600 tumans for the suit. I was very conscientious to wear formal attire when visiting his Majesty. You know it is easier to stay in bed and take care of business that way. One aspect of it is you are not burdened to go to formal functions.

Majlis and the people

Sir, for a politician there are three things that are important: to have enough courage to finish the job; to have enough selflessness to make sure everything will be done; and to make the right decision at the right moment. If I had not decided to go to the army headquarters on 9th of Esfand and to the Majlis as well, my time would have been up. It is all God’s will. I heard later that after leaving Kakh Street [where Dr. Mosaddeq’s house was located], they had called abroad that the bird left the cage. I came in front of the Majlis and said I will speak where the people are. I was not afraid. Some five to six thousand people gathered and I spoke there. They attempted to shoot at me but the bullet hit poor Khajeh Nuri; I passed out and ended up in a coffee shop.

Bozorgmehr writes: “I was a student in law school. I remember the incident very well. It was when Mosaddeq had insisted on taking Seyyed Mohammad Tadayon [a one time minister of education] to trial and members of the Majlis were supporting Tadayon. He called the proceedings a dozdgah [den of thieves] rather a dadgah [place of justice]. He then came out of the Majlis where he had not been allowed to speak, and spoke among the people without fearing for his life.”

An economy without oil

Sir, if they had allowed us to continue our work for a year and finish the reforms we intended to undertake with an economy not dependent solely on oil, and an acceptable budget, peoples’ lives would have improved. Any reasonable person has a personal and a social aim in life. His personal aim is to have bread, to have prosperity and health for himself and his family. His social aim in life is freedom and prosperity for his country.

Sir, it is difficult to stay clean and pure. What one must do is to forgo a lot of things and to live frugally, which I have tried to do.

On the rights of the people

When you let the people speak out and criticize, the government cannot do what it wants. The government must listen to the desires and wishes of the people. The very existence of my government was based upon the needs of the nation. Therefore you could not stop people from expressing their views and strangle them.

Kakh Street and the army headquarters

They went to bring the car to take me. I got into the car and went towards my house. There were a few people running after the car. The police around Heshmat el-Dowleh stopped them. I went directly home. I later heard that they wanted to get rid of me there. But I had already left the scene. Sometimes God does miracles. At home, I heard some commotion. Someone had gone up on the tree next to Ahmad’s house and shown them a knife saying that with this we will decapitate Mosaddeq. Ahmad’s household was in turmoil. Ahmad came and told me, you should go to Shemiran, it is dangerous for you to stay here.

Dr. Fatemi was there too. I told Ahmad, why Shemiran? For what, so that they will then say, the Prime Minister and his minister of national defense minister have fled the scene out of fear. It is then that I said let us go to the army headquarters.

The trial

Bozorgmehr says: “Whoever saw me during the proceedings would tell me why don’t you use this article or that article of the law or mention this and that. When I told Dr. Mosaddeq, he said,” “they think everything at this trial is done according to law. They don’t know that even the few things we say, we do it like magicians.”

In military prison

Bozorgmehr writes: “I went to see him at around 4:30. He looked tired and upset. His eyes were hollow. After I said hello, I asked: How are you Sir? He said I am still here. I then told him that he looked very tired. He said, I have been very upset for three nights and did not sleep last night at all. I had a “crise” (breakdown). I had to take some sedatives, I feel better now. Those few days had coincided with the time twenty foreign experts among them seven Englishmen who had been at Abadan oil refinery had arrived in Iran. The Senate elections had been concluded and the 45 million dollar loan to Iran had already been used up [this was close to the first of the Iranian calendar year]. All these were worries had kept Dr. Mosaddeq awake and made him think of everything he had tried to do [for Iran].”


Colonel Farroknia came to see me. I was not feeling well. He said do you want to write something? I said, what shall I write? I already said it during the trial. I will not ask the Shah for amnesty. Amnesty is only given to criminals…….

And what followed is part of our anguished history: After the Shah returned to power, Mosaddeq was tried for “treason” and sentenced to two years in prison. He spent the rest of his life in exile, never allowed to leave his humble residence in Ahmad Abad. He died in Tehran, in Najmieh hospital, endowed and named after his mother, the daughter of Mozaffaredin Shah, an exceptional woman and a philanthropist. Dr. Mosaddeq had cancer of the mouth. He had refused to leave Iran for treatment, saying that Iranian doctors were as good as foreign doctors and it would be an insult to them.

The Shah left his homeland in the midst of a Revolution he had only recently come to recognize as one. Even those who had brought him to power did not let him remain in their respective countries- but a few weeks- while he was ill with cancer and dying. He died in exile in a foreign land just like his father before him. The fate of Iran changed forever…. A new regime that ostracized both Mosaddeq and the Shah eventually came to power.

Az Mast Ke bar Mast….

*Haj Hasan Shamshiri was an illiterate but successful bazaari and a sympathizer of the National Front. He owned and operated the famous Chelo-kababi Shamshiri in Tehran’s bazaar. Pious and generous, he gave a large sum of money to help build and finish a wing of the hospital. My father was the intermediary between Dr. Mosaddeq and Shamshiri in all the transactions involving Najmieh hospital while representing Dr. Mosaddeq as his personal lawyer.

* Jalil Bozorgmehr, Taqrirat Mosaddeq dar Zendan, edited by Iraj Afshar, Tehran, Iran Zamin publishing house, 1359/1981.


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ِRed Wine and Arj


Sometimes I seriously do wonder whether it's not really the Islamic Republic's people sitting behind some of the shahollahi characters here, having fun, just making them look bad and laughing...


Dictator with a mandate!

by Arj on

Dear Amirparvizfor..., what kind of a dictator would seek people's approval through a national referandum at the height of his dictatorship as Mosadegh did?! Yes, he received approval from the majority of Iranians. It's called popular, democratic mandate. Where did Shah on the other hand, get his mandate form? The British who deposed his father and installed him in his place?! Perhaps we all need to be honest with ourselves!

Dear Parham, you're welcoem.

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

How to win

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


is to play the game with as much duplicity as others! Put Iran first but be willing to make compromises and expect trickery. Do not be naive and expect honor form your opponents.

Shah; Mossadegh all of them made similar mistakes. Mossadegh thought British will roll over. Shah thought America was his friend. Well sorry they got it wrong. We have no friends only occasional allies. Then only when it fits their purpose. 

If we keep that in mind we have a chance to get somewhere. Play the different powers against one another. Why not? Make allies with Israel when it helps us. Sell out Hamas and Hizbollah if you need to but for the right price. That kind of things will do...


Qajar Cancer

by BoosBoos on

The Qajars are also on my list of hated Iranian rulers - my theory is that they accepted bribes to sell out the Iranian people.  I simply can't accept that they were all high on opium.   

Red Wine


by Red Wine on


امیر پرویز،دست تویِ گورِ تاریخ کردن هنر نیست،آزردنِ دیگر ایرانی برایِ اثباتِ یک ادعا نیز کارِ درستی‌ نیست .

در حالِ حاضر در دورانی زندگی‌ می‌‌کنیم که فهمِ مردم بالا رفته است و شعورِ ایشان بالاتر،بیش از ۹۰% مطالبی‌ که دیگر حضرات در اینجا می‌نویسند تکراری و بلغوراتی است که دردی از دردِ میهنِ ما دعوا نمی‌‌کند،دریغ از یک حرفِ حساب !

هر گاه کسی‌ بی‌ احترامی کند،بی‌ احترامی جواب پس گیرد که هیچ...دو تا پس گردنی نیز خورد تا بفهمد که دورانِ قداره بندی و قزاق بازی تمام شده است.

نظرِ اشخاص مهم است اما بدونِ بی‌ احترامی به دیگران،حال می‌خواهد به خاطر،مذهب،نژاد و یا اقوام و خاندان باشد،بی‌ احترامی را به هیچ وجهی،به هیچ گونه و از هیچ کس تحمل نمی‌کنیم.

موفق باشید.



by amirparvizforsecularmonarchy on

I correct one thing here, I did not mean during summer recess, I meant during dissolving parliament , shah had legal right to remove mossadegh as prime minister when mossadegh dissolved the parliament, which was created during his own primeministership.  I wonder why he knowingly chose to break the law?

Dictators think that if they have the power, they can interpret the law to suit themselves, that mark of shame will always remain with him. Refusing to obey the law and step down as prime minister can not be easily forgotten or forgiven.

Red wine, I've been a source of inspiration for the misinformed for a while now, the internet just gives us another tool to connect with each other.  Did my comments not help your mind develop based on giving you an alternative point of view?

Red Wine


by Red Wine on

امیر پرویز،تو دیگر از کجا سبز شده‌ای که این چنین در دامانِ خطا کاران پناه گرفته یی ؟! برو عزیز جان این دام را بر دگر شخص بنه که استخوان‌هایِ حاجی محمد رضا در گور به تکان تکان می‌ خورد از این جفنگیات !

آبرویِ سلطنت طلبان را اینان برده اند با این عرایضِ تو خالی‌ و من درآوردی ! تا چقدر دور از واقعیت بی‌ خبر از خواسته‌هایِ مردمِ ایران،بدتر از اسلامیون !



Qajars were truly worse than IRI,Irans Loses are on their Record

by amirparvizforsecularmonarchy on

Obvious Facts, The Constitution of Iran allowed for the Shah to replace a prime minister during summer recess, that was done and Mosadegh refused to leave.

History will Remember him as Irans first democratically elected Dictator (no matter how patriotic his motives) for closing Irans Parliament, something the constitution did not give him the power to do, as well as refusing to step down when ordered by the King.

These realities are both factual and truthful.

As far as winning against the british, we need to be realistic here, so far Iran has not been victorious against foreign meddling, the question is how to win when the interests of foreign powers are all aligned?

What I mean is The USA, UK, Germany and France all united with respect to replacing the monarchy, with mullahs/tyranny.  Today they are all still united over Iran and how to deal with it.  It is tyranny that they want for Iran, not freedom, justice, progress or democracy.  Add Russia to the group today, as they love the IRI too.

Be fair, be honest with yourselves, how many of you still think that Iran can manage a democracy with the Colonialist/Imperialist reality the people are facing, 33 years of tyranny and no democratic institutions?

Gentlemen, please, put aside the bongs for a second and answer this question like an adult.  Under the circumstances is it even possible to liberate Iran, right at this moment?  Is it possible to set up a democracy? 

If not, then what is the best solution for Iran? 




by Parham on

Many thanks for the link to that ICJ online document, I had never seen it!
All the best.


Dear VPK

by Arj on

There was no talk of "winning" here, but the deafeat of a superpower by an underdog for whom no one assumed a chance! For a true hero, victory is not defined by the possibiltiy of survival, but by giving all there is for what one stands for! As it was in the case of Dr. mosadegh, protecting Iran's independance and national interests superceded personal gains! And in that, he emerged victorious with flying colours.

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Dear Arj

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


Yes I know that Dr Mossadegh defended Iran personally. But it does not change the reality. He was deposed by a British and CIA coup. Do you agree? Hence he lost in his battle against the British. I am not happy about it.

Do not take my statement as minimizing him. The man tried but the British were too much. He did not count on their deception and that was his mistake. Yes he will be remembered just like Amir Kabir. May I remind you what happened to Amir Karbir! 

Being a good person does not mean that you win. Got to be nasty and two faced to win. This is a very bad thing but the more honest the less chance you have. Those who win are the ones who cheat; lie and make backhanded deals.


The Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. case...

by Arj on

Dear VPK, I'm not sure if you've heard of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. case in which the government of Great Britain filed a complaint against Iran with the International Court of Justice in 1951 after nationalization of Iranian oil by Mosadegh's government. Mosadegh, a Dr. in international law himself, fought the British Government personally in the Hague, defending the rights of Iranian people to its oil and sovereignty in a 'David vs Goliath' fashion, bringing the British colonialism to its knees. As a result, the very chair Dr. Mosadegh defended Iran in is now adorned with a memorial plaque commemorating the event!

Here is a link to ICJ's document on the case:  //


بیماری خود زنی


شاه و مصدق و فلان و بیسار بهانه است . مشکل ملت ایران و به ویژه روشنفکرانش که عمومآ تاریک اندیش تر از توده مردم بیسواد هستند اینست که گرفتار بیماری بد گوئی ، منفی نگری و خود زنی شده اند . علاوه براین بیشتر ایرانی ها قرن ها است که دچار دو گانگی مزمنی شده به این معنی که از طرفی سرزمین خود را دوست دارد و در همان حال گرایش به بیگانه دارد و مصدق و شاه و اغلب سیاستمداران هم از این آفت بی نصیب نبوده و نیستند . هر خوبی یا بدی را که به مصدق و شاه و غیره نسبت میدهند در خود ملت و به ویژه درس خوانده هایش هم وجود دارد منتها آنها شده اند فلان پیشانی سفید یا گوسفند قربانی .
سوای اینها دشمنان شمالی و جنوبی و غربی و شرقی امروز ملت ایران همان هائی هستند که پنج هزار سال پیش هم بوده اند .
هزارها بار انواع زور و نیرنگ به کار بردند که این کشور و ملت را بکل از هم بپاشانند . تا اندازه زیادی هم موفق شدند و حالا دنبال اینند که کار را تمام کنند . یکی از حربه های بیگانگان اینست که جنگ حیدری نعمتی بر سر هواخواهی و یا دشمنی با این و آن راه بیاندازند تا انرژی ملت را به بیراهه سوق دهند . یکی از پیروزی های بزرگ دشمنان ایران و همدستان دانسته و ندانسته ایرانیش برای در هم شکستن این کشور این بود که به بهانه مثلآ استبداد ، نظام چند هزار ساله پادشاهی را براندازند و حالا سنگ تمام گذاشته اند که آن سیستم کشورداری و حتا مدل اصلاح شده و یا به روز شده آن هم برنگردد و دمیدن در شیپور هواخواهی از مصدق هم در ذات خود همین هدف را دنبال میکند ونه جانبداری صرف از مصدق  . البته بدنه ملت ایران دور از این حرفهاست و هوا خواهی یا ضدیت دو آتشه با این یا ان خوراک روحی  یا وسیله گذران زندگی حاشیه نشینانی است که بشتر دنبال جائی ویژه برای آینده خود هستند .


Mossadegh will always be the most popular politician

by Roozbeh_Gilani on

Amongst ordinary Iranians.

The reason? He was and still remains the only democratically elected Iranian leader in Iran's modern history, who gained power through a truely democratic election where every Iranian had the right to vote, where every political party was allowed to participate in the electoral process.

It is a true shame that the treason of a bunch of mercenaries of foreign powers, led to the removal of this man of honour from the office and started a process which took us to these current days of shame, murder, jail, rape and  theft at grand scale, inflicted upon our ancient nation and it's honourable people, by a bunch of thieveing , murdering islamist thugs, in the name of their God, "Allah".......  

"Personal business must yield to collective interest."

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Dear Arj

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on

Mossadegh stand out is that he was the first Iranian to defeat the dominant superpower of his time (the British)

With all due respect to Dr. Mossadegh how did he defeat the British. If I know history they deposed him by a coup. That was not exactly "defeating" the British.

I have a lot of respect for his goals. But be honest. He fought the British and lost. 



by Arj on

Iran has a long history of failing her true sons and daughters by either neglecting them or outright betrayal; anywhere from Babak and Maziar, to Amir Kabir and Mosadegh! Yet, what makes Dr. Mossadegh stand out is that he was the first Iranian to defeat the dominant superpower of his time (the British) without resorting to armed struggle -- when he took on the British government and its colonial arm, The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in the Hague!

Our nation is indebted to this man for his courageous efforts in nationalizing our oil and ending the British exploitation of our wealth. Indeed, he should be lauded for what Shah later on took credit in his so-called White Revolution as "nationalization of oil."

Masoud Kazemzadeh

Thank you

by Masoud Kazemzadeh on

Dear Fariba,

Thank you so much for the translation.  Learned a great deal from it.




And on the occasion of 28 Mordad...

by Parham on


در حیات ملت ها گاهگاه نقاط عطفی وجود دارد که ممکن است مسیر تاریخ آنها را تغییر داده ودر زندگی آنان اثرات عمیق وشگرف بجای بگذارد . اثراتی که حتی با گذشت دهه ها وبلکه قرن ها هم باقی میماند ونسل های پیاپی را درگیر عواقب خود مینماید . بدون شک در تاریخ معاصر ایران کودتای 28 مرداد32 یکی از آن نقاط عطف است . که نمیتوان به سادگی از آن گذشت واثرات منفی آن را در روند زندگی ملت ایران نادیده انگاشت و به دست فراموشی سپرد . اکنون از آن کودتا پنجاه وهشت سال گذشته است ،ولی پی آمد های آن هنوز گریبان ملت ایران را رها نکرده و فرصت هائی را که آن کودتا چه در ایران و چه درمنطقه خاورمیانه سوزاند ونابود کرد هرگز فراموش شدنی نیست . درآن کودتای ننگین شاه مملکت دست در دست سازمان های اطلاعاتی انگلیس وآمریکا گذاشت و آن حرکت پلید وبیگانه ساخته را علیه دولت دموکرات ومستقل وملی مصدق به راه انداخت . کودتائی که طراح آن سرهنگ وودهاوس مامور عالیرتبه اینتلجنت سرویس انگلیس و فرمانده عملیات آن کرمیت روزولت رئیس منطقه ای سازمان سیای آمریکا در خاورمیانه بود . دربار پهلوی ، چاقوکشان حرفه ای از قبیل طیب حاج رضائی وحسین رمضان یخی ودار ودسته شعبان بی مخ همراه فواحش فسادخانه معروف تهران ، عوامل داخلی انگلیس وآمریکا مانند برادران رشیدیان وبرخی نظامیان وطن فروش مثل فضل الله زاهدی و نعمت الله نصیری وتیموربختیار ، بعضی روحانیون درباری مانندآیت الله بهبهانی وچند تن نفوذی های درون نهضت ملی مثل مظفر بقائی وآیت الله کاشانی مجریان این طرح مشعشع انگلیس وآمریکا بودند. کودتا در زمانی اتفاق افتاد که دولت ملی مصدق در مبارزه با استعمار پیر انگلیس پیروز شده وبساط غارتگری شرکت سابق نفت انگلیس را از ایران برچیده بود . او باملی کردن نفت راه چپاول این ثروت عظیم ملی را مسدود وآن را دراختیار صاحبان واقعی آن یعنی ملت بزرگ ایران قرار داده بود . مصدق نه در حرف بلکه در عمل با برقراری آزادی های سیاسی مثل آزادی احزاب ، آزادی اجتماعات وتظاهرات ، آزادی مطبوعات ، آزادی انتخابات وقانونگرائی الگوئی ازدموکراسی را درمنطقه استبداد زده خاورمیانه به نمایش گذاشته بودکه تا آن زمان نظیری نداشت.

استقلال وآزادی همراه با دراختیار گرفتن ثروت ملی نفت وکسب بیلان اقتصادی مثبت حتی بدون فروش نفت ، اعتقاد به تخصص وشایسته سالاری توئم با سلامتی وپاکدامنی حکومت ملی میرفت تا ایران رابه کشوری روبه رشدوتوسعه وملت ایران رابه مردمی مرفه وسعادتمندکه استحقاق آن رادارند مبدل نماید که آن کودتای ننگین همه آن دست آوردها وچشم اندازها را بر باد داد وبا تحمیل 25 سال اختناق ووابستگی به اجانب ، برسر مردم آن آوردکه با اعتراض وخیزش همگانی ملت ایران روبرو گردید ودر بهمن 57 تومارش درهم پیچیده شد . درحقیقت از همان روز انجام کودتا نهال کینه ونفرت از کودتاچیان در قلوب آحاد ملت ایران نشانده شد و25 سال طول کشید تا این نهال خشم وانتقام به بارنشست ومبارزات مداوم وجانفشانی های بیشمار گروه های مختلف مردم ایران سرانجام توانست در بهمن 57 به ثمر برسد وبساط حکومت ظلم ودیکتاتوری رادرهم نوردد. امروز از انقلاب 57 نیز 33 سال گذشته است . ولی هزار دریغ وافسوس که اهداف ملت ایران از انقلاب که درسرلوحه آن آزادی واستقلال وبرکناری دیکتاتوری قرارداشت هرگز برآورده نگردید . حاکمیت برخاسته از انقلاب راه انحصارطلبی وواپسگرائی درپیش گرفت . باز هم زندان ها که قرار بود موزه ظلم ها و ستم های رژیم گذشته شود از انبوه آزادیخواهان ودگراندیشان انباشته گردید. وجمهوری اسلامی از نظر تعداد اعدام ها دررتبه دوم جهانی یعنی پس از چین قرار گرفت . جمهوری اسلامی با عدم رعایت آزادی های اساسی وحقوق انسانی ملت ایران وایجاد جو اختناق و سوء مدیریت چه درسیاست خارجی وچه در مسائل داخلی وفساد مالی آن چنان کارنامه نامقبولی برای خود فراهم نمود که امروز همان دنباله روهای کودتاچیان 28 مرداد با وقاحت تمام خود را محق برای رهبری مردم ونجات کشور تصور میکنند. ولی همه میدانند که اگرامروز ملت ایران گرفتار این همه ناکامی است وبا فقر وبیکاری وگرانی روز افزون و فساد وفحشاءواعتیاد دست وپنجه نرم میکند وبا بحران سیاست خارجی روبروست ، باید ریشه همه این مصائب را در کودتای 28 مرداد وعملکرد رژیم گذشته جستجو نمود . اگر حاکمیت ملی ودموکراسی دولت ملی مصدق نهادینه میگشت و با آن کودتای ننگین راه تداوم آن بسته نمیشد ورهبروطن خواه وصدیق ملت به محاکمه وزندان مادام العمرکشیده نمیشد امروز بطورقطع سرنوشت ملت ایران رنگ دیگری داشت . اگر فرزند شاه سابق کودتای 28 مرداد را « افسانه 28 مرداد » بنامد واگر کج اندیشان گمراه، محکوم کنندگان کودتای ننگین 28 مرداد را « هیئت عزاداران 28 مرداد » بنامند ، چیزی از این واقعیت نمی کاهد که این کودتا نقطه عطف شومی است که تمام سیه روزی های ملت ایران از آن نقطه آغاز میگردد. معلوم نیست که کودتائی که تمام اسرار آن توسط صدها جلد کتاب وهزاران مقاله ودر خاطرات طراحان ودست اندرکاران آن ودر اسناد محرمانه سی ساله « سازمان سیا » و « اینتلجنت سرویس » صراحتا از پرده بیرون افتاده وتمام حوادث آن درمقابل چشمان ملت ایران به وقوع پیوسته چگونه میتواند « افسانه » نامیده شود؟. آیا خانم مادلین آلبرایت وزیر خارجه اسبق آمریکا که ازبابت دخالت آن کشور درآن کودتا رسما از ملت ایران عذر خواهی نموده است به خاطر یک « افسانه » این پوزش خواهی را انجام داده است ؟. این که طرفداران سلطنت چه بگویند وچه اوهامی را درسر بپرورانند به خودشان مربوط است ولی اینکه از جرگه آزادیخواهان ویامدعیان آزادیخواهی کسانی تحت تاثیر شرایط روز ایران دچار سطحی نگری شده و گوشه چشمی به طرف آن بانیان 28 مرداد داشته باشند گناهی نابخشودنی و لکه ننگی است که با آب هفت دریا هم از چهره آنان زدودنی نیست .



by Parham on

Thanks for the translation, these are certainly interesting bits and pieces.


Amir Normandi

by Parham on

And who was that Iranian adviser in 1953?

nasrin noor

Mosadeq, Bazargan, Sanjabi, Sahabi, and the rest of JM

by nasrin noor on

were incompetent as a door knob!


Let Iranians take charge of Iran's destiny

by Amir Normandi on




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In 1953 the US national security took the advice of a high level “Iran Expert” to topple the premiere Mossadegh’s government and today regretting the turn of events in the region.

One more time another high level Iran expert advising against the people of Iran by choosing the MEK to replace the cleric regime!

Can we let this nation take charge of her destiny without outside intervention?

Amir Normandi

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Dear Aria

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


Thank you for the details that you provided. I do not know accuracy of them but it does not matter. One big point of disagreement I have is the oil nationalization.

I think it was a bad idea at the time and a giant mistake; the root of our problems. 

  • It angered the British and had them out to "get" us.
  • The result was massive retaliation by the British.
  • We did not have the expertise to manage it at that time.
  • We did not have a military power to defend it.
  • It resulted in the inability to sell oil and actually backfired.
  • It became a crutch that we have relied on since. Instead of using our talents and people we rely on pumping oil.

I would have much preferred if he had focused on education. Generate literacy and a middle class that stands on its own feet not on oil. Meanwhile regulate the heck out of oil so that the foreign companies got to pump as little as possible. Make a deal to get some of the profits but leave most of the oil where it is. Require British to employ and train Iranian engineers to run the industry. Then over time develop the expertise to handle it ourselves. Then slowly transition to Iranian run industry.

For example restrict new oil wells. Make it difficult for any new oil fields to be developed by non Iranian companies. Give the British a good deal on condition they would take our side on other issues. For example Bahrain or other territorial disputes. Make them build universities and accept Iranian students in their universities. Milk them for every drop of oil they get. Make it look like they are getting the better of us. But in reality get things we otherwise would not have. For example a steel factory.

The best approach is not always confrontation specially with a stronger opponent. Dr, Mossadegh chose direct confrontation and lost. He lost and so did Iran. As you said we did not get peace and prosperity. Nor did we get a democracy. Instead we got a coup and many people with grudges. Those grudges festered for 26 years until they led to the disaster of a revolution. Imagine if instead he was more pragmatic. Too bad the pragmatist PM Razmara was murdered.


It was not a coup....

by Aria on

For the following reasons:1. Mossadegh dismissed the parliament and as such exceeded his constitutional powers.   In absence of a parliament the Shah used his legal authority to appoint a new prime minister.   2. Col. Nasiri delivered a letter on the 25th of Mordad, he did not storm Mossadegh's house.   3. The U.S. resisted U.K.'s temptation to take any action against Mossadegh for 2 years, 1951 - 1953.  It even offered loans to his government.  The U.S. policy was to bolster Mossadegh's government so that the communists could not take advantage of the situation.   4. High unemployment and inflation due to the fact that Iran was not able to sell its oil to world markets had caused sever social/political climate for change in the society.  People were sick and tired of the situation.   5. A Soviet take over via a puppet Tudeh party government was a serious possibility.  6. Mossadegh's mistakes, a number of them, alienated him even from his closest allies.  7.  Indeed, there was an Ajax operation but against the realities of the day at the time, Ajax operation was only 20% of the the political picture, not the whole truth of the day as some try to portray.  8. A fed up society revolted, the army followed suit (it was a monarchist army created by Reza Shah and it was staunchly anti-communist) and US/UK were also involved (20%).  Those who turned against Mossadegh were not/are not traitors.   They saw a great threat from Tudeh party and took the side of not allowing Iran to become a Soviet satellite country.  9. Mossadegh will indeed be remembered as the hero of the Iranian Oil Nationalization, but he must not be absolved of the serious mistakes he made.   He was a great populist who was able to rally the nation behind his cause, Oil Nationalization.  But, he was also a mediocre political manager who failed to deliver peace, prosperity and economic stability.



Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Dr Mossadegh

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


Dr Mossadegh was a patriotic Iranian. However he was not an astute politician. Of course he wanted the best for Iran and I give him credit for it. But he made the following mistakes:

  • Put too much value in oil and not enough in people. The real wealth of a nation is its people not its natural resources.
  • He underestimated British and their greed which led to his downfall.


The result was that we ended up with a coup. That led to Shah being viewed as a puppet by many people. Organizations like MEK and others were started. No matter what Shah did in some people's eyes he could do no right.

Therefore he got paranoid and made Savak. That resulted in more discontent. The vicious circle kept going and Shah became reliant on American support. Meanwhile Shah was pushing for modernization which freaked out "traditionalists". No matter how good the economy was it was not "good enough". People like the singer "Farhad" sang about how terrible it was; filling people's heads with lies. Anything good Shah did was dismissed. Anything bad magnified a hundred times.

The people around Shah were sycophants who lied to him. On one hand the nation was boiling with anger. But he was being told "people love you". When malcontent got too much Shah got a nasty surprise and all went down the drain.


May he rest in Peace

by Bavafa on

A great person and a great leader who was betrayed by Iranians aided by foreign power.

Rohesh Shad baad.

'Hambastegi' is the main key to victory 


Red Wine


by Red Wine on

اِشتباه می فرمائيد،اگر صدقه سرِ  شاهزاده قاجار نبود الان جنابعالی روسی حرف میزدید و جَميع النساء في عائلتك در حرمسرایِ اَجنبیان و شما مو طلایی!

تشریف ببرید و قدری پارسی یاد گیرید و تاریخ را از نو فرا گیرید وگرنه هیچ کس گوش به بَلغوراتِ جنابعالی نمی‌‌دهد.

چشم و گوشِ  مردم باز شده است و دورانِ  قَزاق پرستی‌ پایان !

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan


by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


Were true losers in all ways; their major accomplishment was to lose territory. Something that not even the Mollahs did!

Red Wine


by Red Wine on

سیاوُش،چند سالَت هست که اینجور از تاریخِ  مملکتَتْ بی‌ خبری ؟! اَمر به میر پنج مُشتَبه شده بود و خودش از هیچ خبر نداشت.

این یکی‌ دگر مُضحک است که با این پیام..همچو تنبانِ  پائین، پهلوی را به سَخَّر کشد و سلطنت را به ایران زمین تَنگْ !


Face of Khaen

by Siavash300 on

"Haj Hasan’s solution was if they buried Reza Shah next to Naser el-Din Shah, nobody will pay anymore visits to the tomb. " Interesting story!!!

Reza Shah the Great,  did a lot for our country. God bless his soul.  He initiated the  modernized that we were all witnessing by late 70's. Now, reading the above paragraph shows the face of Khaenins to Iran and Iranians. The story comes from Qjar mongolian dynasty and their offsprings who treated Iran as a county of their enemy for 140 years. Shame on them.