Remembering Mosaddeq

Iraj Afshar, Jalil Bozorgmehr and Mohammad Mosaddeq


Remembering Mosaddeq
by Fariba Amini

“This building was constructed in 1334 thanks to the generosity of Mohammad Hasan Shamshiri.* All the money received from regular patients who come here for treatment will be used to treat those who are poor and cannot pay for such services. From these revenues, nothing will be taken to compensate the owners and the administrators.” -- Mohammad Mosaddeq, inscribed on a plaque at Najmieh Hospital in Tehran

On the anniversary of the August 19, 1953, coup, which is forever etched in our memory, what better way than to remember Iran’s democratic leader by reading an account filled with anecdotes of his personal and political life as told to his lawyer, Jalil Bozorgmerh in a book called Taqrirat-e Mosaddeq dar Zendan* (Mosaddeq’s Prison Notes) compiled by J. Bozorgmehr and edited by the late great Iranologist, Dr. Iraj Afshar.

I have taken the liberty of selecting and translating passages from the book. In as much as possible I have tried to stay true to the original text. Published two years after the Revolution, it is the personal account of the key moments in the life of a unique man and a distinguished politician, including the events that led to his downfall.

Introduction by Iraj Afshar

“There is no doubt that the late Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq left a lasting mark on Iran’s history and his government opened an important chapter in the political development of Iran. Thus, to judge him correctly and without bias, the many aspects of his life must be understood, and for this we need ample genuine documents.

Among these documents, which I have the honor and privilege to present to the readers, is a series of assorted notes gathered by Colonel Jalil Bozorgmehr, his honest lawyer during the military court proceedings. He undertook this task with immense courage while visiting the late Mosaddeq in prison. Dr. Mosaddeq reread the notes but in order not to make changes in the text made only a few marginal corrections so as not to cause a problem for Bozorgmehr.

Mr. Bozogmehr kept these notes from the hands of the political police in different places for 26 years and presented them to me for publication. I am indebted to him for his friendship and kindness honoring me with this task, allowing me to do the right thing towards one of the most exceptional political figures of Iran.

Colonel Bozorgmehr’s notes did not follow the sequence of events. Every day, he would write what he heard from the Dr. and would jot it down later from memory. I only tried to put them in correct chronological order. I hope it will be acceptable to those who read the book. May Mosaddeq’s soul be content.” – Los Angeles, 11 Farvardin 1359, Iraj Afshar.

Mosaddeq’s appreciative letter to Bozorgmehr

“I want to convey from far away my greetings to my friend Mr. Jalil Bozorgmehr and to thank him for his courageous effort in representing me during the military trial; I looked forward to seeing him during the time I was in prison. After the trial, I was saddened not to be able to see him. It was indeed an unpleasant period which I endured, and now that 12 years have passed since my imprisonment, I cannot leave Ahmad Abad and am not allowed to see anyone except for my children.

Since I will not live to see him [Bozorgmehr] again, I want to convey my sincere appreciation and bestow all my blessings to him in helping a compatriot. I ask the almighty God to protect him and his family.” -- Mohammad Mosaddeq

Bozorgmehr’s note

“Dr. Mosaddeq did not want to talk much about himself but I wanted to engage him so I would ask him questions. He would always say whatever the people need to know about me, they already know and they will know.” -- Jalil Bozogmehr

Passages from the book:

Studies abroad

In 1909 I started on a journey via Rasht and Enzeli to study in Paris. I took my brother Mr. Abolhassan Diba (Seqqet el-Dowleh) to study in a boarding school.

I had studied so much during 1909-1910 that I got very sick. I remember I went to see Professor Haim, a renowned French physiologist; when he saw the test results of my stomach acidity, he was astonished to see how high they were. He told me that I was the first patient whose stomach was so messed up. He told me that I had to take a 3-month rest. I told him that, unfortunately, I could not as it was my last year of studies. But he insisted that if I did not listen, nature would force me into doing so. I continued going to school but sometimes it was unbearable for me to sit for a long time and listen to the professor’s lectures.

Village life

I remember staying in convalescences in the village of Afjeh. During my time there, an old friend Mirza Abdollah Khan Mirpanj was with me. He was a very honest man. One day, he asked me so what other thing did you learn during your time in Paris besides your studies? I said, like what? He said, like cooking. I told him I learned how to cook a little bit. I know how to make crème renversée, or what they call pudding. I decided to make it for my friend. After two days of boiling milk and eggs and trying to cook it under the fire I had made, I failed. It was during lunch the next day and after nothing changed in the texture of the milk that Mirpanj told me, if your studies are anything like your cooking, God have mercy on this country and the people [!]


I had been invited to attend a meeting of a society in Tehran. By chance, Mr. Ali Akbar Dehkhoda was there as well. We worked together for a while and we liked each other and trusted one another. The meetings were held in the Seraj Mosque. One day, during am outing, he said I have told the people that you would be coming to the meeting, which will be held in a house across form the mosque. I said, ok we can go together. I found out that the owner of the house was the late Mirza Alimohammad Dowlat Abadi who was one of the leaders of the E`tedal Party. After a few discussions, I found out that they had invited me to become a member. Since I did not want to upset Mr. Dehkhoda, I did not say anything and did not decline. While I was in Europe I did not know much about what was happening in Iran when it came to politics. I was just tending to my studies. I did not know the different parties, and it was only because I trusted Mr. Dehkhoda that I had accepted the invitation. They brought the Koran so that I would swear on it. But I declined. My friendship with Mr. Dehkhoda resulted in my becoming a member of the E`tedal Party; I worked with Mr. Dehkhoda for a while; since he would occasionally be late for meetings, (extended laughter) we would go to his house so that he could be on time.


I spent a few days in Bombay [Mumbai]. Some Iranian residents of India came to visit me. Among them, Prince Soleyman Mirza and `Isa Mirza, who had both been imprisoned by the British government, came to see me. Vossuq el-Dowleh was also in the hotel Taj Mahal where I was staying. We did not meet or cross paths, for obvious reasons.


In Qavam el-Saltaneh’s cabinet, I was the minister of finance. I wanted to make reforms in the Ministry of Finance and fired a few people. When Journalists wanted to write negatively about me, they would first write in favor of Sardar-e Sepah who would then say they didn’t say anything negative.

Another time, Qavam called me in and told me that because the country was in financial distress, they wanted to sell bonds. Since people trusted me, I, along with [Sydney]Armitage Smith who was a British financial advisor, should sign my name for this reason. I got up and said I would never do such thing. As long as Armitage Smith was in charge of our finances, I would not agree. Then, they tried to bring an advisor from the United States. I said this will not work either. First you must prove that Iranians cannot take care of the financial affairs of their own country. This is like they used to say that an Iranian cannot run the oil production and he can only make water pitchers.

The Soviets

The abolition of the law of capitulation in Azerbaijan that I had ordered while I was minister of foreign affairs resulted in a continued discussion with the Soviet Ambassador in Tehran in 1302. He wrote a letter to me in which he reminded me that there was no such law between Iran and the Soviet Union. You must tell us under which jurisdiction should Soviet citizens be tried in Iran, he asked. It was obvious that all this pressure was because of what I had done in Azerbaijan.

Treaty of 1919 and Vossuq

God only knows that I was the first person who was against the treaty [of 1919, which gave partial rights to the English to govern Iran, making Great Britain the sole foreign power that mattered in Iran]. When Vossuq el-Dowleh became head of the ministers he was given a lot of money to spend. He then would buy off people and give them salaries. We worked with Samsam el-Dowleh against Vossuq. One day, Vossuq came to me and said tell me what you are up to? I said that I had no plans; that I was going to Europe. I started writing against the treaty when I was in Switzerland. I was in Neuchâtel, which was a remote place. I had a room on the 3rd story of a building. I could not make a stamp there thus I had to go to Bern and make a rubber stamp in the name of the committee I had formed : Comité Resistance des Nations. At that time, the League of Nations was meeting in Versailles. I wrote my objections and protest letters and would send them to Nayereh Soltan, and he would then send it the League of Nations and to the press. The English were watching.

Ahmad Shah

They took Ahmad Shah to England where they had a big party for him. Nosrat el-Dowleh wrote a declaration, praising the treaty Vossuq el-Dowleh had signed and they wanted Ahmad Shah to read it. One of the worst things Ahmad Shah ever did was to appoint Vossuq el- Dowleh as the head of ministers without a vote in the Majlis. And he [Vossuq] in turn, signed the treaty. Ahmad Shah became quite upset after this event. While in London, the British wanted him to admit that he was okay with this action but he did not agree. This guy, Naser el-Molk, insisted that Ahmad Shah accept the terms, but he did not accept to read the statement during dinner. It was because of this that the late Ahmad Shah was dismissed.


Qavam came to me and said you have done good work while you were in Shiraz, but we also noticed that you have spent your own money; you should be compensated. So he gave me a check for 10,000 tumans as a token. I told him that it was not necessary, no thank you. If I have done anything, it was for my country. I am not needy. I have a livelihood in Tehran. If I have had financial loss it is my own doing. It is not necessary to pay me. If I had taken that money I am sure I would have been put in jail.


They [the British] had spent quite a bit of money on the police in the South. The British consul in Shiraz told me that they gave one hundred Lacks to Farmanfarma. Each Lack was one hundred thousand Rupees, so a total sum of five to six hundred thousand rupees. When I returned to Tehran I asked Farmanfarma. He said it wasn’t just him, but Qavam Shirazi also received money. When Forughi was in office, the British sent a letter to him and he accepted their terms but they immediately charged Iran by deducting it from the oil revenues. Forughi was not the type to take money but he wanted to stay in power and get his monthly salary. Whatever they wanted, he would do. Vossuq el-Dowleh would not give any concessions until he received money; sometimes if he didn’t get his share, he would not give concessions [to the British].

The Persian Gulf islands

We wanted to send troops to the islands of Sheykh Sho`eyb and Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf but the English were against it. They said these two islands belong to the Emirate of Sharjah. They had control over Sharjah and wanted to add the two islands to the Sheikhdom. Because of this [at that time Dr. Mosaddeq was minister of foreign affairs] I had some heated exchanges with Sir Percy Loraine (who was by the way a polite man). He told me, do you know who you are dealing with? I said, yes, what can you do to me? The only thing you can do is kill me. That’s all. By the way, what happened to the fate of the islands? [Asking Bozorgmehr]

An interesting story

One of the most interesting stories I remember is about Eyrum who was the head of police. One day, the Shah told him, I have heard that lots of people go to Naser el-Din Shah’s tomb to say their prayers. Do something about it. That evening, Eyrum was a guest at Haj Hasan Aqa Malek’s (in Emamzadeh Qasem). This property has its own story; it belonged to his [Haj Hasan’s] father who was a real crook. He had gotten the property in a bet with my uncle Farmanfarma. When Haj Hasan saw that Irum was in deep thought, he asked, what is the matter? Colonel Eyrum told him what the Shah had said. Haj Hasan then said, give me some money and I will find the solution. Haj Hasan’s solution was if they buried Reza Shah next to Naser el-Din Shah, nobody will pay anymore visits to the tomb.

Foreign diplomats

In my first encounters with foreign diplomats first I would meet them with ultimate cordiality and in proper attire and would accompany them all the way to the doorstep. But then after the initial meetings, I greeted them in bed in my private room. For a couple of years, I only had one suit to wear. At The Hague and at the Security Council, I would wear the same clothing, also at private functions. Ahmad [Dr. Mosaddeq’s son] had a formal suit, which he had brought from Europe, and I wore that when I went to see his Majesty (before I became Prime Minister) and during the opening of the Majlis. I had paid 600 tumans for the suit. I was very conscientious to wear formal attire when visiting his Majesty. You know it is easier to stay in bed and take care of business that way. One aspect of it is you are not burdened to go to formal functions.

Majlis and the people

Sir, for a politician there are three things that are important: to have enough courage to finish the job; to have enough selflessness to make sure everything will be done; and to make the right decision at the right moment. If I had not decided to go to the army headquarters on 9th of Esfand and to the Majlis as well, my time would have been up. It is all God’s will. I heard later that after leaving Kakh Street [where Dr. Mosaddeq’s house was located], they had called abroad that the bird left the cage. I came in front of the Majlis and said I will speak where the people are. I was not afraid. Some five to six thousand people gathered and I spoke there. They attempted to shoot at me but the bullet hit poor Khajeh Nuri; I passed out and ended up in a coffee shop.

Bozorgmehr writes: “I was a student in law school. I remember the incident very well. It was when Mosaddeq had insisted on taking Seyyed Mohammad Tadayon [a one time minister of education] to trial and members of the Majlis were supporting Tadayon. He called the proceedings a dozdgah [den of thieves] rather a dadgah [place of justice]. He then came out of the Majlis where he had not been allowed to speak, and spoke among the people without fearing for his life.”

An economy without oil

Sir, if they had allowed us to continue our work for a year and finish the reforms we intended to undertake with an economy not dependent solely on oil, and an acceptable budget, peoples’ lives would have improved. Any reasonable person has a personal and a social aim in life. His personal aim is to have bread, to have prosperity and health for himself and his family. His social aim in life is freedom and prosperity for his country.

Sir, it is difficult to stay clean and pure. What one must do is to forgo a lot of things and to live frugally, which I have tried to do.

On the rights of the people

When you let the people speak out and criticize, the government cannot do what it wants. The government must listen to the desires and wishes of the people. The very existence of my government was based upon the needs of the nation. Therefore you could not stop people from expressing their views and strangle them.

Kakh Street and the army headquarters

They went to bring the car to take me. I got into the car and went towards my house. There were a few people running after the car. The police around Heshmat el-Dowleh stopped them. I went directly home. I later heard that they wanted to get rid of me there. But I had already left the scene. Sometimes God does miracles. At home, I heard some commotion. Someone had gone up on the tree next to Ahmad’s house and shown them a knife saying that with this we will decapitate Mosaddeq. Ahmad’s household was in turmoil. Ahmad came and told me, you should go to Shemiran, it is dangerous for you to stay here.

Dr. Fatemi was there too. I told Ahmad, why Shemiran? For what, so that they will then say, the Prime Minister and his minister of national defense minister have fled the scene out of fear. It is then that I said let us go to the army headquarters.

The trial

Bozorgmehr says: “Whoever saw me during the proceedings would tell me why don’t you use this article or that article of the law or mention this and that. When I told Dr. Mosaddeq, he said,” “they think everything at this trial is done according to law. They don’t know that even the few things we say, we do it like magicians.”

In military prison

Bozorgmehr writes: “I went to see him at around 4:30. He looked tired and upset. His eyes were hollow. After I said hello, I asked: How are you Sir? He said I am still here. I then told him that he looked very tired. He said, I have been very upset for three nights and did not sleep last night at all. I had a “crise” (breakdown). I had to take some sedatives, I feel better now. Those few days had coincided with the time twenty foreign experts among them seven Englishmen who had been at Abadan oil refinery had arrived in Iran. The Senate elections had been concluded and the 45 million dollar loan to Iran had already been used up [this was close to the first of the Iranian calendar year]. All these were worries had kept Dr. Mosaddeq awake and made him think of everything he had tried to do [for Iran].”


Colonel Farroknia came to see me. I was not feeling well. He said do you want to write something? I said, what shall I write? I already said it during the trial. I will not ask the Shah for amnesty. Amnesty is only given to criminals…….

And what followed is part of our anguished history: After the Shah returned to power, Mosaddeq was tried for “treason” and sentenced to two years in prison. He spent the rest of his life in exile, never allowed to leave his humble residence in Ahmad Abad. He died in Tehran, in Najmieh hospital, endowed and named after his mother, the daughter of Mozaffaredin Shah, an exceptional woman and a philanthropist. Dr. Mosaddeq had cancer of the mouth. He had refused to leave Iran for treatment, saying that Iranian doctors were as good as foreign doctors and it would be an insult to them.

The Shah left his homeland in the midst of a Revolution he had only recently come to recognize as one. Even those who had brought him to power did not let him remain in their respective countries- but a few weeks- while he was ill with cancer and dying. He died in exile in a foreign land just like his father before him. The fate of Iran changed forever…. A new regime that ostracized both Mosaddeq and the Shah eventually came to power.

Az Mast Ke bar Mast….

*Haj Hasan Shamshiri was an illiterate but successful bazaari and a sympathizer of the National Front. He owned and operated the famous Chelo-kababi Shamshiri in Tehran’s bazaar. Pious and generous, he gave a large sum of money to help build and finish a wing of the hospital. My father was the intermediary between Dr. Mosaddeq and Shamshiri in all the transactions involving Najmieh hospital while representing Dr. Mosaddeq as his personal lawyer.

* Jalil Bozorgmehr, Taqrirat Mosaddeq dar Zendan, edited by Iraj Afshar, Tehran, Iran Zamin publishing house, 1359/1981.


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اشتباه یا فرصت طلبی بیجا ؟


I cannot in all honsety say that the NF or the Melli Mazhabis did not make a mistake. They did but everyone was fooled.  Fooled by Khomeini.  They believed him. I don't think they even thought that an Islamic Republic is going to be an Islamic regime in nature.

اول اینکه همه آنهائی که خود را ایرانی میدانند چه هوادار مصدق باشند یا شاه یا خمینی و یا هر عقیده دیگری ، میهن خود را دوست داند و این هویت اصلی و همیشگی ما هست . ولی مشکل اینست که همه گروه های سیاسی و حکومتهای  یکی دو قرن اخیر ایران نگاهشان و امیدشان به غرب و تا حدی شرق بوده و هست و این  سرانجام ناگواری برای همه آنها رقم زده و خواهد زد .
دوم اینکه خانم امینی نوشته اند هواداران مصدق اشتباه کردند که جانب خمینی را گرفتند . اشتباه نکردند آمدند رندی کنند تو چاه افتادند ! نه تنها جبهه ملی بلکه تمام گروه های چپ و راست در آن زمان به خیال خود  مثلآ زرنگی کردند و آگاهانه و حساب شده  به محمد رضا شاه پشت کردند و رفتند زیر پرچم آیت الله خمینی به این امید یا توهم که بعدا او را حاشیه نشین کنند و خود قدرت واقعی را بدست گیرند . هیجان و حرص قدرت ، عقل و آینده نگری را از آنها گرفته بود . خمینی ، که حواسش جمع بود ، از این تاکتیک  آنها آگاهی داشت و عمدآ مدتی چشم بر هم گذاشت و یا حتی آنها را تشویق هم کرد تا اینکه اول جای پای خودش را محکم و سپس قلع و قمع یک به یک آنها را شروع کرد و در واقع سزای آنانی را که به جای اتکا به نیروی خود میخواستند با زور دیگری به جائی برسند را کف دستشان گذاشت .  نتیجه این شد که همه زرنگها باختند و شد حکایت اینکه چه میخواستیم بشود و چه شد ! ؟ نتیجه اخلاقی و سیاسی اینست که هر فردی و هر گروه سیاسی و مهمتر از همه ، ملت ایران تنها به آنچه در وجود خودش هست اتکا و به آن هم بسنده کند تا عاقبت به خیر شود .
به امید سربلندی ایران و ایرانیان . 


Dear Ms Amini this is a religion for you

by fozolie on


Mossadeq for you is a crusade. He is a saint and beyond reproach. It is impossible to have a logical discussion with a martyr loving hero making fanatic. If you look at his record logically he was a demagogue who cared more about his own name and popularity than the interests of Iran and Iranian people. Your writings do nothing other than propagate a tragic chasm in Iranian society. No wonder Iran is ruled by a bunch of opportunist maggots.

Mr. Fozolie


Shah's mistakes?

by Arj on

Dear Ms. Amini, how could one support Mosadegh and at the same time talk about Shah's foreign policy?! Shah was not supposed to have a foreign policy. He was supposed to be a monarch who represented the traditional institution of monarchy -- hence the constitutional revolution. Running the foreign policy was the duty of the PM. Indeed once the state affairs, which are meant to be run by the head of executive branch and overseen by the legislative branch, are conducted via Shah's "darbar" or Khamenei's "beyt-e rahbari," there are far more critical issues at stake than their personal tastes in foreign policy!

If left to one person to decide and micromanage every single affair of a nation, he's ultimately bound to screw up. It's called dictatorship. Otherwise, who knows, maybe Khamenei too, actually believes he wants what's good for Iran according to his beliefs. But, that's totally irrelevant!


مرسی‌ خانم امینی



از جواب مفصل شما خینی متشکرم.




Dear Fariba

by Parham on

Did your father ever ask him (or explain it himself) why he had not called the people (his supporters) into the streets on 28 Mordad? Was he taken by surprise, or was there any other reason cited?

Fariba Amini

I read her article. Thanks

by Fariba Amini on

I read her article. Thanks for sharing it.

I cannot in all honsety say that the NF or the Melli Mazhabis did not make a mistake. They did but everyone was fooled.  Fooled by Khomeini.  They believed him. I don't think they even thought that an Islamic Republic is going to be an Islamic regime in nature. They (most of them) were secular in nature and yes, they were religious too but none of them wanted ideology to have a role in government.  

My own father (like yours maybe and millions of other Iranians) prayed went to Mecca and believed in his religion but never ever did he want Islam or any other ideology to mix with politics.  He prayed in his home or at the mosque but when he went to represent people as a lawyer , he was a secular man in mind and in principle. In politics too.  Many of the NF members were.  I can't say that about Nehzad Azadi.   But all I can say and vouch for is that they were good people,  honest politicians ; did not enrich themselves with lots of money or posessions whereas almost everyone around the shah did espcially his own family.  I would like you to read Ardeshir Zahedi's new memoirs which is online ; it is truly revealing. Everyone around the shah except a few people even when he was dying wanted money.

I also think it was a very turbulant times.  I don't think PM Mosaddeq could have changed anything.  I believe he was a true patriot. Could he have done more? Maybe but it is difficult to judge because no one knows what may have happened. The British were adamant to get rid of him. Historical documents reveal that.  The Americans were now the new power and wanted a share of the pie. 

I think at some point and time Mosaddeq would have been deposed.  My own father asked him this very question in Ahmad Abad.   He said, they would have gotten rid of me, even if I had accepted the 50-50 share. 

Let me ask you, why did they get rid of Reza Shah? 


I want to end this by saying that the Shah also loved his homeland. He also made grave mistakes but you can't say that all his foreign policy was wrong.   I also think he wanted to see Iran propser but he went about it the wrong way. He became to engulfed in his own greatness.   


Politicians make mistakes. We make mistakes. The point is to learn and go on.  We need to build a better Iran... all of us together. 


Ms Amini

by Ehaass on

You are an assett to all Iranians! Thank you for your fantastic work. i have been reading your articles for some time, i am so delighted to be able to praise you publicly. i hope you get to read this comment. I am myself an English major and have worked some time to get my book published.

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Aria: well said

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


I have been trying to dispel the Mossadegh worship. But you did a much better job than me. To expect Ms. Amini to be unbiased it to ask too much. However the rest of us may learn from your writings.

I am not sure if I would have done exactly as you said. But for most part you make sense. Mossadegh was hotheaded and surrounded himself with wrong people. 

Picked fights that were both unnecessary and unwinnable. So he lost! The worst part of his legacy was the poisoning of Iranian politics. With the simmering hate that resulted in time in creation of IRI.


Ms. Amini:

by Aria on

If I had been Mossadegh I would have done the following:


  1. Like Ghavamol-Saltaneh, I would have chosen Iran’s well-being over my own hold on power.   Post nationalization, which its credit is rightfully his, he should have stepped aside and allowed for another prime-minister to take over to be able to sell the oil and start re-building the country.   He did not do that.  When Shah asked him to volutarily step aside, he became furious and reacted by telling him that the Shah could not suggest that.    In the case of Azarbaiijan, Ghavomol-saltane made a deal with Stalin that he would give Soviets the rights to the Caspian sea oil as long as they vacate their army from Azarbaiijan.   Stalin did leave Azarbiijan, but Ghavamol-saltaneh came back and asked the Majlis not to endorse his own premiership for the next run so that he would not be held accountable to the promise he had made to Stalin.  That is the difference between a politician who puts his country first over his own political faith, Ghavam; and one who wanted to hang on to it at any cost, Mossadegh.


  1. He should not have dissolved the parliament as he knew that was an illegal act.

Those who criticize the Shah for stepping outside his constitutional role by ruling, ignoring the constitution, cannot justify Mossadegh’s violation of the same constitution.   One cannot have both sides of the same equation.


3.   He should have curbed the activities of his own foreign minister, Dr. Fatemi, who was constantly attacking and insulting the Shah and his family.    Mossadegh claimed that he was loyal to the constitution, which recognized the Shah as the leader, how could Mossadegh let his own foreign minister insult the king in that manner.   It should be kept in mind that the popularity of the Shah in 1953 was very different than his 1979 public perception.


4.  As a politician he should have paid more attention to the Soviet and its internal tool, Tudeh party.   On the global scene from Africa, to Southeast Asia to Eurpoe, Soviets were taking over countries visa-vie liberal (but weak) governments.    He should have made a deal with the Americans, checkmating the British, curbed Tudeh party and ended political/social and economic chaos.  The US government, unlike the British, did not want to undermine his government at the beginning.   The U.S. wanted his government to survive against the communists, that is why they offered loans and all kinds of assistance between 1951 and 1953.   It was towards the end that the U.S. realized that he could not be dealt and joined the U.K. 


  1. I know that your dear father was his personal lawyer and I respect that. Again, Mossadegh will always be remembered as the hero of the Iranian Oil Nationalization but he will also be remembered for his mistakes, shortsightedness and flaws.   Truth is never back and white but rather gray.





فریبا خانم


من هرچه شما میگوئید را باور دارم. ولی‌ ممکن است نظرتان  درباره مقاله خانم افشاری "یاران مصدق، یاوران خمینی" را ابراز فرمایید؟


Fariba Amini

Thank you

by Fariba Amini on

First of all let me thank you for reading this piece and making constructive comments.  We need intellectual discussions on every level concerning Iran, its history and politics.


I do know that nothing will ever erase the glorious role of Dr. Mosaddeq in our history.   A man who could have had it all, and did chose to stand by his people and never betray them.  He chose honor over greed, something quite rare in our modern history (even pre-Pahlavi history) 

The Pahlavi supporters and the IRI will never come to accept Mosaddeq because he stood against everything they stand:  corruption, greed, no belief in democracy and the rule of law.  Everyting Dr. Mosaddeq did was for Iran and Iranians.   He stood up against the mightiest empire which had used its power from long before 1953 to bring him down.  We can deny all we want but history tells us differently. 


Nonetheless, no one claims that Dr. M. or any other politican is free of making mistakes. That would be idiotic. But the fact is that I would like to ask these gentlemen who make remarks such as that he was not a good diplomat or underestimate his ability, what would they have done instead in those crucial times?    What would you have done if foreign powers be the Soviets, the British, and the Americans (newly added to the foes)  were conspiring to bring down your regime ?  What would you have done if Iranians, your own compatriots, betrayed you right and left and many sold themselves to those powers? if agents were everywhere to work against you?   if finanically your governernment were cornered by those powers? if the head of the country was weak and left the country because they told him or that he would not stand behind his own PM?   

What would you do if I may ask? 

Mosaddeq was not given the time of day.   Because he was uncorruptable and uncompromising in selling his country and his country men and women to foreign powers. 


That was his "sin."

Who should have been put on trial for Treason, Mosaddeq or others?   the Rashidians, and the rest of them......  



Dear Arj

by Parham on

I certainly hope so! Now I wish i could be 100% convinced of that...


Dear Parham

by Arj on

I wouldn't feel so sad. For there are loonies everywhere and across all political spectrums. However, the degree of influence  these right wing extremists and quasi-fascists can wield in the political scene depends on the level of socio-political developments in a society. For instance, in European countries, these groups are pushed into political margins by the public opinion and raise their voice here and there in the event of an occasional crisis. Whereas in a less developed society, due to lack of experience and political awareness, such groups get the chance to leave their mark on the society for certain periods of time! 

Fortunately for Iran, the time in which extremists and fascists could rule with Iron fists are bhind us. The abject failure of monarchy (Shah) and theocracy (IRI) in meeting the political demands of a modern society of 20th and 21st centuries were enough reason for our nation to look beyond the past and forward to a future in which everyone is equally treated vis a vis the law of the land and no one is above the law, be it a king or representative of god! A society in which Shahollahis and Hezbollahis would not have a voice through brutal force. But one that represents their percentage of the popular vote!

Mash Ghasem

سرمقاله‌های باختر امروز از ۲۵ تا ۲۷ مرداد ۱۳۳۲

Mash Ghasem

کوتاه بین دو کودتا به روایت حسین فاطمی


باختر امروز از







دکتر حسین فاطمی، وزیر امور

خارجه دولت مصدق در فاصله بین دو کودتای





در روزنامه باختر

امروز که مدیریتش را برعهده داشت، سه سرمقاله آتشین نوشت؛‌‌
همان شد که روز


مرداد دفتر روزنامه باختر امروز که از سال


منتشر می‌شد، توسط عوامل کودتا غارت

شد و آن لحن آتشین سرمقاله‌ها در اعدام فاطمی تاثیر
انکارناپذیر داشت

فاطمی در سرمقاله‌های خود در آن


روز محمدرضا پهلوی را که پس از شکست کودتای


مرداد به بغداد فرار کرده بود، «فراری بغداد» توصیف کرد و
دربار را دشمن ملت و نیز «قبله‌گاه هر چه دزد، هر چه بی‌ناموس
و هر چه واخورده اجتماع» و انگلیس را ارباب شاه. «تاریخ
ایرانی» بنا به اهمیت این سرمقاله‌ها و تاثیری که در فضای بین
دو کودتا و سرنوشت نویسنده‌اش داشت، متن کامل این سه سرمقاله
را منتشر می‌کند که در پی می‌آید:



Miss Amini it is enough

by fozolie on


Your hero was a failure who tried to rule by decree. He was a demagogue. Perhaps you cannot help making Mossadegh into a religion and a matter of faith. At best he was a failure and the chasm created by him and the Shah's stupidiy let in the Islamists. Enough is enough.

Mr. Fozolie

PS: I was borm long after these events but given what I know about how much Iran was in dangeer of communism and how Saint Mossadegh was fooled by the Toudeh, if it was 28th Mordad was to happen again I would fight to rid Iran of Toudeh and this demagogue.

 Enough mental masterbation!

Mash Ghasem

کارنامه ی مصدق : جعل شکوه در تاریخ بی شکوه

Mash Ghasem

آرام آرام مردن را آغاز می کنی 
اگر به نواهای زندگی گوش فرا ندهی 
اگربرده ی عادت خود شوی 
اگر همیشه از یک راه مکرر بروی 
آرام آرام مردن را آغاز کرده ای 
اگر روزمرگی را تغییر ندهی 
اگر رنگهای متفاوت به تن نکنی 
اگر برای مطمئن، در نامطمئن خطر نکنی 
امروز زندگی را آغاز کن 
امروز خطر کن 
امروز کاری بکن 
نگذار به آرامی بمیری.... 

پابلو نرودا

در مکتوبات نویسندگان سنتی یعنی همان جماعت به تعبیر باقرپرهام "
پراکنده گوی قلم به دست گفتمان پرداز " کرارا با واژه هایی نظیر " راه مصدق
"، " استراتژی نهضت ملی" ، " استراتژی مصدق " و... مواجه می شویم که گویا
بر اساس آن قرار است نسخه ای " مصدقی " برای مسایل امروز جامعه نیز پیچیده
شود. اگر استراتژی را با تعریفی عام و ساده به یک برنامه منسجم برای یک
دوره معین و پیش بینی تاکتیکهایی برای پیشبرد این برنامه تعبیر کنیم، نمی
توان تصور کرد که چنین واژه هایی را بتوان به مصدق و جبهه ملی الصاق نمود.
اگر منظور از " استراتژی "، آنچه عملا به انجام رسید و شعارها و برنامه "
برگزاری انتخابات آزاد " و " ملی کردن صنعت نفت " ( و مقوله مرتبط با آن : "
موازنه منفی " ) باشد که شعار اولی مطلقا مسکوت ماند زیرا طرح و برنامه ای
برای آن وجود نداشت و اولی نیز به دلیل فقدان هر نوع برنامه مشخص پیش بینی
شده به بن بست و شکست کامل انجامید. 
جبهه ملی
نیز ترکیب و معجونی از افرادی بود با وابستگیها ی فکری و سیاسی متفاوت که
مصداق بارز " بند و بست چند تن ناسازگار " و " دولت ناپایدار بودند و به
مرور زمان هم بین آنها جدایی و تفارق حاصل آمد و از همان جمع محدود اولیه
هم چیزی باقی نماند و حتی برخی از آنها کارشان به همدستی فعال در توطئه و
کودتا علیه مصدق کشیده شد. " استراتژی و راه مصدق " را حتی در زمان خودش می
توان یک معادله چند مجهولی تلقی کرد دیگر چه برسد به آنکه بخواهیم از دل
آن پاسخی برای معضلات و دغدغه های امروزمان بیابیم. 

مسعود بهنودها، ترکمانها، برهانها هنوز مدیحه شان را بسرایند و سالهای
حکومت مصدق و ملیون برایشان همان " رمی " باشد که همه راهها بدان ختم می
شود.آزادیخواهی در ایران امروز باید ذائقه سیاسی اش را تغییر دهد و سطح
توقعات و آرمانها و سقف پروازش را به شدت ارتقاء ببخشد. مصدق و امثال او
نمی توانندشاخص ونماد آزادیخواهی و برابری طلبی دوران ما باشند. از خلال
آتش و خون و دود سالیان پیشین اما، نسل تازه ای سر برون آورده است که می
بایست بکوشد تا شایسته عصر حاضر و آرمانهای آن باش



Dear Red wine, Afshinzad, VPK...etc

by Siavash300 on

Seems we are all in the same page. Let's forget the past and move forward, but Ms.Fariba Amini and some J.M sympathizers don't let it happen. Keep writing about Mosaddeq coming up. As long as these literatures shows up in I.C we have to test and question the thurth from fiction. We can't just let some fabricate our history  and we indifferently let it go.



Dear Arj

by Parham on

I know! I wish I were a little more paranoid sometimes, so at least I wouldn't feel so bad for some... I mean, it can be funny to a certain degree, but when you think these are the same people who have, are and will, to a certain degree, affect the fate of you and your children, it's not funny anymore... And then the only thing you can do after a certain time is just to feel sorry...


Covert vs overt

by Arj on

Dear Parham, no need for the IRI agents, they are doing a bang up job on their own!

Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Well Roger

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


You just proved my worst fears.


یاران مصدق یاوران خمینی


بانو نادره افشاری اخیرا مقاله بسیار جالبی‌ نوشته اند که نشان میدهد چگونه یاران دکتر محمد مصدق به یاری خمینی شتافتند. این شما و این یاران مصدق - اوخ ببخشید منظورم یاران خمینی بود. 


بازرگان در سخنرانی اولیه-ی خود در مراسم تاسیس نهضت آزادی تصریح كرد که [ما] «اولا مسلمانیم، و دین را از سیاست جدا نمی‌دانیم؛ ثانیاً ایرانی هستیم، ولی ایراندوستی و ملی بودن ما ملازم با تبعیض نژادی نیست؛ ثالثاً تابع قانون اساسی مشروطه هستیم؛ رابعاً

مصدقی هستیم، و "مصدق" را از افتخارات ایران و شرق می‌دانیم»



Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

By the way

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


Grass is always greener on the other side. We do not know what would have happened if Dr Mossadegh was not deposed. Maybe the Islamists would have assasinated him and brought IRI 25 years earlier. 

Maybe his allies like Bazargan would have sided with Islamists. Remember Bazargan was a pretty hard core Islamist himself. We just assume it would have been great based on wishful thinking. He would have had to face a Soviet based Toudeh party without Western support. Two things make people act out: power and fear. He would have had plenty of both. Power of the ruler of Iran and fear of another coup by West or Soviets. Are we sure he would not have created a security apparatus like Savak?

I don't know just am wondering out loud. He was a patriotic man so if he saw Iran in danger he may have had no choice.


Learning from the past is the only value in it

by amirparvizforsecularmonarchy on


A good research video on cinema rex



Veiled Prophet of Khorasan

Dear Afshinazad

by Veiled Prophet of Khorasan on


Great job and well said on all accounts. You said it better than I did. The problem with some groups like JM is they live in the past. For the rest of time they will debate Dr. Mossadegh. They will never give up on this discussion.

I specially like your statement "Let’s thank Mosadegh for his achievements, but let us not make of him a god or another saint, because he was human and he did the good and bad things and every human makes mistakes."

Hence JM is making themselves irrelevant in today's Iran. We got to get over this business and move on. The JM is stuck in 1953 and has never moved on. The MEK is stuck in 1979 and never moved on. It reminds me of my old college fraternity. We had people in their mid 30s who still showed up and hung out there. Time to move to 2011! Put aside the past and move into present. Yes we learn from the past but don't roll around in it for all time. There is a present and a future! 


so what is your goal for

by rashid on

so what is your goal for today and let's not live in past.

 افشین خان جان کلام را گفتی .

و پاسخ من به این عبارت شما اینست :

چون هدفی و باوری به آینده ندارند فعلا به بد و خوب گفتن درگذشتگان سرگرم شده اند .


Are we all wrong

by afshinazad on

Who is right or wrong and who was the hero or the enemy is our mistakes, we Iranian love to talk about freedom and democracy and yet we always forget one thing that is most important and that is telling the truth and accepting responsibilities for our lack of compromise and accepting others right, Mosadegh was for his time period, and today we are facing far more problem if anyone forgotten.Mosadegh: his achievement was the nationalising gas and oil and that cost him a lot in his last days of his life. But his idea was not good for then and it is not good for today, whether we want accept it or not. he was reformer and even he couldn't handle the freedom of speech and democracy in two year and the fact is, it was impossible to him or anyone at that time to compromise with people who were hungry for power not a democracy, in my opinion we Iranian forget that who was the mosadegh and where he was come from and he had great posts all his life, he was in government most of his life, but his voice came out almost at end of his life, not while Gajar were selling the country part by part, everyone has a positive and negative sides, so let's learn from their mistakes and not walk in their shoes.Let’s thank Mosadegh for his achievements, but let us not make of him a god or another saint, because he was human and he did the good and bad things and every human makes mistakes.  Both shah and mosedegh are gone and now clerics are screwing the nation and the country, so what is your goal for today and let's not live in past.

Let’s remember Cinema REX


Red Wine

 Boos ezafi

by Red Wine on

 Boos ezafi Cancer

بوس بوس ،یک هفته و ۵ روز بیش نیست که در اینجا هستی‌ و این چنین سنگِ اشتباه به سینه تاریخ زنی‌ ؟! برو عزیز، برو آقا جان،خداوند روزیت را در جایِ دگر دهد،هر چند که به ما ندا داده اند شما کیستید ... ! تشریف ببرید و کتابِ تاریخ را به زبانِ شیرینِ پارسی مطالعه بفرمایید.


سیاوش،رضا میر پنج چند کارِ مهم انجام داد اما در امورِ سیاسی هیچ گونه موفقیتی کسب نکرد،اشتباهاتِ سلاطینِ قاجار هر چقدر بود را خود امیر پنج که سهل است،پسرش نیز نتوانست به خیر تغییر دهد،آنها که مردند،حال که باید کرد و انقدر کیسه کشی‌ و روده شوریِ قدیم و گذشته‌ها را نباید کرد !

پرهام اینها به خدا از سلطنت و از پهلوی هیچ ندانند،صد رحمت بدان قزاق مابها که لااقل اندکی‌ انصاف و اندکی‌ احترام به دیگری داشتند،اینها حتی ۴ کلمه از تاریخِ نبشته شده به دستِ پهلوی را نیز نخوانده پر ادعا هستند،در یک کلام هیچ کس به آنها احترام نمی‌‌گذارد،اینها در معرکه پس افتاده اند و هیچ از زندگی‌ِ واقعی‌ِ مردمِ ایران ندانند.



Red wine's question.

by Siavash300 on

"سیاوُش،چند سالَت هست که اینجور از تاریخِ  مملکتَتْ بی‌ خبری ؟! اَمر به میر پنج مُشتَبه شده بود و خودش از هیچ خبر نداشت." Red wine

I try to study the truth and unbias history as much as I can. For example, by reading write ups of Steven Kinzer and Christain Amanpoor I found they were fabricating Iran history. They lied and they made millions on misery of Iranian people for last 32 years. Now, as far as Qjar dynasty concerned, I saw one video from Parham which was saying the Paedophile king of Qjar known as Naser-al-din shah had 40 children. I am sure some of those children are still alive and may made some comment on this site to defend their paedophile grand pa. Having 40 children tells me the guy was busy with his haram and sex. No time to think about Iran. Or the useless, opium addict shah known as Mozafar-al-din- shah who signed oil concession with Brits. and finally Mosaddeq who was 19 years old at the time of signing oil concession by opium addict uncle and choosed to be quite and never condemn his Qjar dynasty for signing the oil concession with Brits. Mosaddeq became nationalist after 50 years silent. what a good grief. He wanted to ousted our king with 20,000 official members of communist party next to him at the end.

   I know, Reza shah the Great, never took his boot out and worked 24/7 to reach Iran in the level of European country standards. His frequent expression was: I make Iran better than France, so the french people come over and regret .  I know Dr. Massood Kazemzadeh whose avatar shows a man with suit and tie owes that attire to Reza shah the Great who unified our clothing to European standards such as suit and tie. Afghan people who didn't have Reza khan still dress like Iranian during time of Qjar.  I know the women had to cover on their face as if they were living in cave time during Qjar dynasty. Reza khan modernized them to European standars. I know that all Jebheh Melli who has a trait of Qjar in there were Khaen (beside Bakhtiar- who was kicked out of that party). I knew J.M sold our country to a bunch of stinky Islamic  rag heads and said this is democracy.  As Hila Sedighi said

پر شد وطن از بوی خیانت 


Arj the word dictator has nothing to do with votes/popularity.

by amirparvizforsecularmonarchy on

Dictators can be either elected leaders or Kings, both types exist.

You just need to clear up your understanding of the word dictator, your question shows you are mis-using the word.

A dictator is someone that uses powers (absolute power) he has not been legally given, for example the prime minister Mossadegh had no right to dissolve parliament, it was not in his power to do so according to Irans constitution, yet he was so powerful he did so anyway.

The Shah on the other hand, was given by the constitution of Iran, the legal right to depose a prime minister anytime parliament became dissolved, which it had been (unlawfully too), as most people know. 

Dictatorship is not about popularity or votes, you have to have 1) ability to exercise absolute power, but even then you are not a dictator, until you 2) break with the law for persoal gain, instead of upholding it. (so certain actions are necessary, it can not be attitudes or thoughts, which many people mistake also)

recent democratically elected dictators include George Bush & Obama both are guilty of breaking the US constitution, using absolute power they were not given, but neither has been challenged.  As it is in no ones interest in the USA to challenge them. 

In Irans case, as popular as M was, he exercised absolute power and then got into big trouble because the shah used this opportunity to ask for help from the most powerful country in the world at the time to uphold Irans constitution.  Because it was an issue of law & use of power, M could not then ask for help and receive help in the open from foreign powers as doing so would dimish the power of any country stading with him against iranian law.

That was a sincere and good question arj. Kudos


on Shaholahis vs hezbullahis...

by Roozbeh_Gilani on

Well, pretending to represent a faction of opposition then carry out deeds or make statements in order  to create friction, confusion, division and spread misinformation amongst the opposition forces, has been the oldest trick which MI6 has taught all it's loyal servant in Iran. 

Just because the forum rules prevent us from naming names, does not mean we dont know who these brothers and sisters with multitude of user ID's are :)

"Personal business must yield to collective interest."