Neda Rayaneh: Slowly catching up with the rest
of the world on the information superhighway
Points of Contact in Iran:
By Payman Arabshahi
Iran's entrance into the world wide data communication network known as the Internet was spearheaded some four and a half years ago by the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), under the direction of Dr. Mohammad Javad Larijani, who was also a parliament deputy at the time. The link was at first through the BITNET network and Iran's membership in the Trans-European Research and Educational Networking Association (TERENA - formerly EARN). It later developed into a full-fledged Internet link with the assignment of 500 IP addresses to the country and acceptance of Iran as a Class C node.
Over the past few years, domestic Internet connections have grown very rapidly, at times placing Iran among the top countries in terms of rate of growth of Internet access. The present Iranian Internet scene, more than four years after the original connection, is still a very dynamic one, and in many respects quite amazing - tens of thousands of users are being served via a few slow 9600 baud links, with networks and bulletin boards expanding everywhere.
One can only speculate on why Internet links to Iran are through such slow lines. The technical know-how appears to be there. A variety of protocols for satellite channels at T1 speeds of 1.544 Mb/s were tested by the Data Communication Company of Iran (DCI) in the late 1980's . At the same time one cannot discount the effect of the U.S. embargo on Iran, which has made the acquisition and maintenance of powerful servers and workstations difficult, if not impossible in certain cases. For a year or so after Iran's Internet debut, U.S. academic sites (on NSFNET) were not even recognizing Iranian IP addresses for telnet/ftp access.
While this situation had been rectified for some years now, since August of 1996 direct Internet access to/from the Iranian Academic Network was blocked by NSF again for no apparent reason. Through the efforts of many people however NSF removed the restrictions only a few weeks after imposing them. The US embargo on Iran specifically excludes "information exchange" activities.
It is true however that there are other technical issues to be solved than just providing a high-speed link, and filling up rooms with high power servers. Ideally, priority in Iran should be placed on developing an internal "network of networks" first by investing in campus-wide networks at universities, and other local and wide area networks in government and industry, and then by linking them together, and eventually to the Internet. By way of an analogy, for a long time, the transatlantic connection from North America to Europe consisted of no more than a few 64 kbyte links, while both continents had very well developed internal internets.
What seems to be lacking is an overall vision for the direction of the Internet in Iran. For instance, presently, DCI has a contract with France Minitel for implementation of a similar network in Iran (to say that Minitel is obsolete is an understatement - in the age of the World Wide Web and NetPCs Minitel is irrelevant and outdated). In some respects this is similar to DCI's X.25 network plan some years ago at a time when everybody was switching from X.25 and similar protocols to TCP/IP (the protocol suite Internet uses).
Add to this blurred vision, the monopolistic views of DCI (which is an organ of the Post, Telephone and Telegraph Ministry's Telecommunications Company of Iran) in trying to force out competition (literally by cutting their lines as it happened last year temporarily with Neda Rayaneh ), and friction between DCI and IPM, the country's main academic Internet access provider, along with DCI's exorbitant charging schemes, and you arrive at a very complicated arena over which Iran's Internet services are operating.
However what is clear is that the Internet is expanding very rapidly in the country, despite the various problems, and past and present strategic mistakes. The government appears to be supportive of the effort, and no matter what happens, it is hard to imagine an Iran in the future without Internet access, at the very least for universities, research centers, and major industries.
Academic Internet AccessAcademic Internet access is available to almost all universities and research centers in the country. Inquiries should be made at the Iran Network Information Center (NIC) at IPM in Tehran (send email to firstname.lastname@example.org). Meet some of the center's main players.
A listing of numerous Internet points of contact in Iran is given in the Appendix. The national academic network is known as IRANET. IPM is also Iran's representative in the Trans-European Research and Educational Networking Association (TERENA).
Other universities have access to the internal Iranian internet, and to enjoy full Internet services, have to connect to IPM or their nearest Internet site. Examples are Tabriz University, Bu-Ali University (Hamedan), Kerman University, Allameh Tabatabaie University, and the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (Zanjan). Some other research centers (Iran Industrial and Scientific Research Organization for instance) have email access via AT&T mail or SprintNET. Still more sites have email and offline Internet access; see below.
The Iranian academic Internet link is via two 9600 baud lines from IPM's Microvax 3100/20E to the University of Vienna in Austria. The internal Iranian academic network consists of a series of mostly leased, (but some dialup) 9600 baud lines. There are presently only two 64 kbyte links in this star-patterned network, between two of IPM's Tehran buildings, and IPM and Guilan University.
It is estimated that at least 60,000 people have in one way or another used Internet services provided through IPM or other providers in Iran . As of April 1996 there were over 1,100 usernames defined on IPM's main server alone, many of them representing "general" accounts at various institutions, open to more than one person.
The resulting congestion, coupled with various routing problems in Vienna, has imposed a heavy burden on the slow link to Austria and there are plans to upgrade the line to 64 kbytes or higher soon. IPM's installed satellite link which can potentially operate at 2 Mb/s is technically ready. All that needs to be done for the link to become operational, is completion of the paperwork between DCI and Intelsat.
However DCI is not very eager to move fast in this regard due to the competition posed by IPM to DCI's own attempts at offering Internet services in Iran (at any price at its discretion). There is a fair amount of friction between DCI and IPM as DCI is striving to be the sole Internet provider in the country.
As of January 1996 there were at least 500 registered Internet domains with valid IP addresses in Iran. A listing of 387 fully identified domains is available upon request.
Contact Information for academic Internet access:
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics & Mathematics
P.O. Box 19395-1795
Tel: + 98 21 801-4869
Fax: + 98 21 801-4003
Area Served: Iran
Services: Full Access (ftp/gopher/telnet/news/WWW) Personal IP, Terminal, UUCP.
Commercial Internet AccessCommercial Internet access is available through four Internet service providers: Neda Rayaneh Institute, Data Communication Company of Iran, Virayeshgar Corporation, and Pars Supaleh.
Neda RayanehNeda Rayaneh Institute (NRI) is Iran's largest (and only non-profit) online service and Internet access provider. It is supported by the Tehran municipality. It began operating in Spring of 1994. It is headed by Nasser Ali Sa'adat. His right hand man is Internet expert Saeed Vahid and he is assisted by a dedicated group of Computer Engineers.
Neda's services include:
NRI offers these services through two leased lines (SLIP) to IPM (for incoming Internet traffic), and a link to Canada (UUCP to www.cadvision.com) for both incoming and outgoing traffic. Internal services are via 30 dialup lines. Neda is planning on increasing the number of dial-up lines to 100.
- Bilingual BBS (Persian/English), running under DOS: Includes bilingual Persian/English email, discussion groups, databases of various kinds (books in print, ...), Yellow Pages of Tehran, online newspapers, business and publisher information, and cultural information.
- Internet email and ftp/www/news via email for users inside Iran.
- WWW service: Homepage design and rental services for Iranian corporations that want to have Internet presence. There is also a local Web service for users inside Iran. The local Web service will be connected to the World Wide Web, as soon as a high bandwidth line is provided for the country.
Neda's BBS is free (and can be accessed from abroad also - contact Neda for the required terminal emulator and other information). The only charge is for using Internet email and offline Internet services, although Neda is considering charging for the BBS as well in the near future.
The charge for an individual account is 420,000 rials ($100) annually. Unfortunately the 40% discount for students available since Neda's inception, is being phased out. Neda's domain-name assignment service for companies wishing to have independent presence on the Iranian internet has also been suspended due to line bandwidth problems (it used to cost two million rials ($476) for having a domain name). These are flat yearly fees, i.e. there are no traffic fees involved.
Neda is looking to provide full, online connection for its users in the future.
Contact information for Neda Rayaneh:
Neda Rayaneh Institute
Tel: + 98 21 808-8869
+ 98 21 200-9287
+ 98 21 200-9288
+ 98 21 250-8600
Area Served: Iran
Services: Terminal (dial-up), Web presence, personal information services.
Data Communication Company of IranEstablished a few years ago as the data communications arm of the state Telecommunications Company of Iran (TCI), Data Communication Company of Iran (DCI) provides Internet access throughout the country via the nationwide IRANPAK X.25 Packet Switching network, covering almost all major cities in Iran.
The network was contracted to Alcatel in 1992 and uses 24 1100 PSX nodes, which enable X.25, X.28, BSC, and SNA/SDLC capabilities . The network was designed to handle some 20,000 subscribers. Internet access is through a 9600 baud link to Ontario, Canada via a X.25-TCP/IP interface machine (a Sun Sparc - dci.iran.com). The Canadian service provider is Interlog. The link was established in April of 1995. DCI services include email and telnet/ftp/gopher/www.
DCI is planning to increase connection speed in the near future. DCI is has also established a 64 kbyte VSAT link (domain name dci.gulfsat.com/s1.dci.co.ir) with GULFSAT in Kuwait (GULFSAT is the world's largest satellite data communications teleport. A VSAT hub, operated in association with GULFSAT, provides satellite-delivered international data, telephone and video communications services to local and international subscribers such as DCI ). DCI recently put out a public tender for supply of 850 VSAT stations, as well as a pager system for Tehran and 25 provinces for 1 million subscribers .
DCI provides both dial-up and leased lines to its users. Leased lines with a speed of 9600 bps cost 40,000 rials ($9.50) per month plus a deposit of two million rials ($476). In addition to this there are per minute charges of 20 rials ($0.005) for domestic calls and 35 rials ($0.008) for international calls. Each bit of data sent costs one rial ($0.0002) domestically and 25 rials ($0.006) internationally. Dial-up lines are cheaper: 5,000 rials ($1.19) per month and a 500,000-rial ($199) deposit, plus the usual connection time and volume charges .
It is estimated that there are about 1,000 users on DCI's network, though no official figures are available. According to a DCI study, more than 90% of government and industrial entities are in need of wide area networks to communicate with their various branches and affiliates throughout Iran. Various large governmental organizations (National Iranian Oil Company, Iran Air, Budget and Planning Organization of Iran, and the Ministry of Energy) have, with DCI's help, set up such networks with outside access to various databanks. The other 10% of governmental and/or industrial organizations are projected to additionally have the need for full Internet access .
An example of a DCI assisted outside link is the Iranian Central Bank which is now on the S.W.I.F.T. network (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) with access to some 3700 main branches of foreign banks.
Yet another large network is that of the Iranian Population Registry Organization which is implementing a network to link some 150 provincial offices comprising some 700 computer terminals.
The Budget and Planning Organization of Iran also operates a VSAT network connecting some 150 terminals in its 24 provincial offices and Tehran.
Contact information for DCI: Tehran Main: [dci, dci1, dci2, dci3, dci4, dci5, dci6]@dci.iran.com
Mobile Division: email@example.com Mazandaran firstname.lastname@example.org Guilan email@example.com Elam firstname.lastname@example.org Fars email@example.com Sistan firstname.lastname@example.org GULFSAT link email@example.com
International Reliable Access Network, Inc
49-6A Donway West, Suite 823 Don Mills
Ontario, M3c 2E8
Gray, Mike (MG354) firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (905) 889-9455
Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
Harrop, Matt (HM39) email@example.com
Tel: (416) 975-2655
Area served: Iran
Services: Full Access (ftp/gopher/telnet/news/WWW) personal IP, terminal.
CompuserveDCI is also offering Compuserve services in Iran. Once an account number and password are assigned (contact DCI at +98 21 803-7969), Compuserve can be reached via PDN number 802-3333. Charges are 1,000,000 Rial one time connection fee to DCI, 350 Rials per minute online and 25 Rials per each 64 characters downloaded plus the usual Compuserve charges for accessing its bulletin board and/or the web.
Virayeshgar CorporationVirayeshgar (Vira) is a Tehran based software engineering firm (major products are Persian DataEase and WordPerfect) that also has a local BBS providing Internet email service. The BBS is served by two 33600 baud modems and uses UUCP twice a day to receive and transmit emails via HOLONET in the U.S. Internet services began in June 1994.
Vira's one-time registration fee is 200,000 rials ($48) and it charges 2,200 rials ($0.52) per each mail sent or received (about 1 kb in size). Vira (Noble Inc.) numbers in Iran are:
BBS: + 98 21 884-1316
+ 98 21 883-9620
+ 98 21 884-1317
+ 98 21 883-9619
Standard user emails at Vira are provided as firstname.lastname@example.org.
Various offline services such as ftp/archie/www/news via email are also part of the package. Vira also echos some of the more technical USENET newsgroups.
Contact information for Vira:
Noble Inc. (Vira)
1501 Beach Street Suite 301
San Francisco, CA 94123
Tel: + 98 21 882-9217
+ 98 21 884-1315
Fax: + 98 21 882-8927
Attn: Mohammad Salehi (SM154)
Tel: (415) 567-6046
Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
Support, Holonet (HS13) email@example.com
Tel: (510) 704-0160
Area Served: Iran
Services: Terminal (dial-up), personal information services.
Pars SupalehPars Supaleh offers a variety of online databases, records, and libraries through a link to the AT&T Network in The Netherlands. Its users are mostly government agencies. Monthly subscription fees are 200,000 rials ($48), plus 400,000 ($95) one-time fee for communication software and training.
These fees do not include fees for usage of various databases abroad - those are billed separately. Presently there are some 100 users on Supaleh's network (example: Iran Industrial and Scientific Research Organization - IISRO).
Unfortunately no contact information is available at this time. Pars Supaleh's Internet email service has been suspended due to low number of subscribers (due to competition and their high prices).
IISRO has apparently set up a site for itself in Canada and is offering Internet services as well, though little more is known about this.
Final NotesIn the words of Dr. Siavash Shahshahani, IPM Deputy Director, and Professor of Mathematics at Sharif University of Technology, Iran's Internet link came into being through the efforts of a couple of hardworking 25 year old computer science graduates with $50,000 in hardware and software and little help from outsiders, who "went into that room down the hall with diskettes and manuals" and linked Iran to the world .
While most of Iran's neighbors followed suit with their own Internet links, in almost all cases they imported the expertise and the infrastructure, and to this day rely on outside assistance for routine maintenance and expansion. The fact that after Israel, Iran was the second country in the Middle East to link up to the Internet and do so relying solely on its own brainpower should not go unnoticed. It is true that there are still many problems to be addressed regarding Internet's expansion in Iran. It is also true that mistakes have been made. However by all accounts, the future of Internet access in Iran is bright, for, once again in the words of Dr. Shahshahani, "Knowledge is more important than capital in this revolution".
- M. K. Moussavi, "Performance of link level protocols over satellite", Proceedings of MELECON '89: Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 629-632. IEEE. 11-13 April 1989.
- Carroll Bogert, "Chat rooms and chadors (Internet users in Iran)", Newsweek, Vol. 126, No. 8, p. 36, August 21, 1995.
- Siavash Shahshahani, "The Center and the network" (in Persian), IPM Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 3, Fall 1995.
- Gene Mesher, "Iran and the Internet", U.S.-Iran Review, Vol. 2, No. 5, June-July 1994.
- Darren Ingram, Data Broadcasting News, No. 053, M2 Communications Ltd, December 1995.
- Middle East Economic Digest, p. 45, July 26, 1996.
- Jahanshah Javid, "Interests conflict over control of Internet access", Iran Business Monitor, Volume 4, No. 9, September 1995.
- Saeed Vahid and Amin Mohadjer, "Network in Iran" (in Persian), Brain Computer Systems Group, Tehran, 1994.
Internet Points of Contact in Iran
Presently the following academic, government and industry sites have direct Internet access: (note: IPM is not the provider for all of these sites - some are served by the Data Communication Company of Iran, see below). IPM serves various sites through leased lines, with one exception (VSAT link to University of Guilan). DCI uses the nationwide X.25 network.
Please note that while many of the sites listed below might have good to extensive computer facilities, in general only a subset of the machines in their Local Area Network (LAN) is connected to the Internet. When mention is made of a PC, reference is almost all of the time to a 486 or higher machine.
The following sites will soon be connected to IRANET:
Many other institutions have dial-up access to IPM and a select few are listed here as well. Some large research centers, such as various Nuclear Energy Research Centers (except the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran) and the Center for Research on Applications and Properties of Materials, are still not fully connected.
- Niavaran Cultural Center, Tehran
- Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan
- Shiraz University
- Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
- Kerman University